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War of Invaders

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Apr 4 2011

The French and Indian War is often described as a colonial battle between France and England over possession of territory. This narrative, however, leaves little space for the Native peoples who fought to stave off colonization. Answer these questions about primary sources on Natives in the war (all written by Europeans).

  1. After what passed this day, you are one of us by an old strong law and custom. My son, you have nothing to fear. We are under the same obligation to love, support and defend you that we are to love and defend one another. You are to consider yourself as one of our people.

    This was said by a member of the Caughnawaga (a Mohawk group) to:

    An English prisoner


    A French trader marrying into the Caughnawaga


    A member of another Native group after conversion to Catholicism


    A French general allying with the Caughnawaga

  2. Our case appears to me indeed very gloomy! notwithstanding our enemies are inconsiderable in number, compared with us; yet they are united as one man, while we may be justly compared to a house divided against itself, and therefore cannot stand long, in our present situation.

    The "enemies" the speaker describes are:

    The English


    The French


    Native peoples


    The Spanish

  3. Here I can’t help observing that for want of a strict correspondence between the several governments, in regard to Indian affairs, that the Indians must think that there can be no union in our councils, when it has been known more than once, that the Six Nations have been invited to a conference by different colonies at the same time. This looks among the Indians, as tho’ our measures were not mutual, and occasions them to be divided in their councils also, being doubtful of our acting with vigor and unanimity against the French. . .

    William Johnson, diplomat to Native nations, wrote this observation when?

    1750, before hostilities had fully broken out


    1754, very early in the French and Indian War


    1758, after the war was underway


    1762, following the conclusion of the war

  4. Brother, we have thought a great deal since God brought you to us, and this is a matter of great consequence, which we cannot readily answer; we will think on it, and will answer you as soon as we can. . . . we have great reason to believe that you intend to drive us away and settle the country or else, why do you come here to fight in the land that God has given us?

    These statements were addressed to whom?

    An English lieutenant colonel


    An English missionary


    A French lieutenant colonel


    A French missionary