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Arizona: 2nd-Grade Standards

AZ.SS02-S1 Strand: American History

  • SS02-S1C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

    Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

    • SS02-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Place important life events in chronological order on a timeline.

    • SS02-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Place historical events from content studied in chronological order on a timeline.

    • SS02-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

    • SS02-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Use primary source materials (e.g., photos, artifacts, interviews, documents, maps) and secondary source materials (e.g., encyclopedias, biographies) to study people and events from the past.

    • SS02-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Retell stories to describe past events, people and places.

  • SS02-S1C2. Concept / Standard: Early Civilizations Pre 1500

    The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations made significant contributions to the later development of the United States.

    • SS02-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize that prehistoric Native American mound-building cultures lived in Central and Eastern North America.

  • SS02-S1C3. Concept / Standard:

    Exploration and Colonization

    • SS02-S1C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS02-S1C4. Concept / Standard: Revolution and New Nation 1700s - 1820

    The development of American constitutional democracy grew from political, cultural and economic issues, ideas and event.

    • SS02-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize that American colonists and Native American groups lived in the area of the Thirteen Colonies that was ruled by England.

    • SS02-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize dissatisfaction with England's rule was a key issue that led to the Revolutionary War.

    • SS02-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how the colonists demonstrated their discontent with British Rule (e.g., Boston Tea Party, Declaration of Independence, Paul Revere's Ride, battles of Lexington and Concord).

    • SS02-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Discuss contributions of key people (e.g., George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin) in gaining independence during the Revolutionary War.

    • SS02-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Know that the United States became an independent country as a result of the Revolutionary War.

    • SS02-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Discuss how the need for a strong central government led to the writing of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

  • SS02-S1C5. Concept / Standard: Westward Expansion 1800 - 1860

    Westward expansion, influenced by political, cultural, and economic factors, led to the growth and development of the U.S.

    • SS02-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify reasons (e.g., economic opportunity, political or religious freedom) for immigration to the United States.

    • SS02-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify reasons (e.g., economic opportunities, forced removal) why people in the United States moved westward to territories or unclaimed lands.

    • SS02-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Discuss the experiences (e.g., leaving homeland, facing unknown challenges) of the pioneers as they journeyed west to settle new lands.

    • SS02-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe how new forms of transportation and communication impacted the westward expansion of the United States

      a) transportation (e.g., trails, turnpikes, canals, wagon trains, steamboats, railroads); b) communication (e.g., Pony Express, telegraph).

    • SS02-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Discuss the effects (e.g., loss of land, depletion of the buffalo, establishment of reservations, government boarding schools) of Westward Expansion on Native Americans.

  • SS02-S1C6. Concept / Standard:

    Civil War and Reconstruction

    • SS02-S1C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS02-S1C7. Concept / Standard:

    Emergence of the Modern United States

    • SS02-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS02-S1C8. Concept / Standard:

    Great Depression and World War II

    • SS02-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS02-S1C9. Concept / Standard:

    Postwar United States

    • SS02-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS02-S1C10 Concept / Standard: Contemporary United States 1970s - Present

    Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

    • SS02-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Use information from written documents, oral presentations, and the media to describe current events.

    • SS02-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Connect current events with historical events from content studied in Strand 1 using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS02-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize current Native American tribes in the United States (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, Lakota, Iroquois, Nez Perce).

  • AZ.SS02-S2 Strand: World History

    • SS02-S2C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

      Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

      • SS02-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Place important life events in chronological order on a timeline.

      • SS02-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Place historical events from content studied in chronological order on a timeline.

      • SS02-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

      • SS02-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use primary source materials (e.g., photos, artifacts, interviews, documents, maps) and secondary source materials (e.g., encyclopedias, biographies) to study people and events from the past.

      • SS02-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Retell stories to describe past events, people and places.

    • SS02-S2C2. Concept / Standard: Early Civilizations

      The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations significantly influenced the development of later civilizations.

      • SS02-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize that civilizations developed in China, India, and Japan.

      • SS02-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize how art (e.g., porcelain, poetry), architecture (e.g., pagodas, temples), and inventions (e.g., paper, fireworks) in Asia contributed to the development of their own and later civilizations.

    • SS02-S2C3. Concept / Standard:

      World in Transition

      • SS02-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S2C4. Concept / Standard:

      Renaissance and Reformation

      • SS02-S2C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S2C5. Concept / Standard: Encounters and Exchange

      Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.

      • SS02-S2C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how expanding trade (e.g., Marco Polo's travels to Asia) led to the exchange of new goods (i.e., spices, silk) and ideas.

    • SS02-S2C6. Concept / Standard: Age of Revolution

      Intensified internal conflicts led to the radical overthrow of traditional governments and created new political and economic systems.

      • SS02-S2C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize that people in different places (e.g., American colonies - England, Mexico - Spain) challenged their form of government, which resulted in conflict and change.

    • SS02-S2C7. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Imperialism

      • SS02-S2C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S2C8. Concept / Standard:

      World at War

      • SS02-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S2C9. Concept / Standard: Contemporary World

      The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

      • SS02-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use information from written documents, oral presentations, and the media to describe current events.

  • AZ.SS02-S3 Strand: Civics/Government

    • SS02-S3C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Government

      The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

      • SS02-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the history and meaning of national symbols, documents, songs, and monuments that represent American democracy and values

        a) American flag; b) Pledge of Allegiance; c) National Anthem; d) America the Beautiful; e) the U.S. Capitol; f) Liberty Bell.

      • SS02-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize that the U.S. Constitution provides the American people with common laws and protects their rights.

      • SS02-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the significance of national holidays

        a) Presidents' Day; b) Martin Luther King, Jr. Day; c) Veterans' Day; d) Memorial Day; e) Fourth of July; f) Constitution Day.

      • SS02-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Know that people in the United States have varied backgrounds but may share principles, goals, customs and traditions.

      • SS02-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize how students work together to achieve common goals.

    • SS02-S3C2. Concept / Standard: Structure of Government

      The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.

      • SS02-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the three branches of national government as represented by the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court.

      • SS02-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Identify current political leaders of the state and nation

        a) President of the United States; b) Governor of Arizona; c) local leaders (e.g., tribal council, mayor).

      • SS02-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize how Arizona and the other states combine to make a nation.

    • SS02-S3C3. Concept / Standard:

      Functions of Government

      • SS02-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S3C4. Concept / Standard: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship

      The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

      • SS02-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss examples of responsible citizenship in the school setting and in stories about the past and present.

      • SS02-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizenship

        a) elements of fair play, good sportsmanship, and the idea of treating others the way you want to be treated; b) importance of participation and cooperation in a classroom and community; c) why we have rules and the consequences for violating them; d) responsibility of voting.

      • SS02-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the importance of students contributing to a community (e.g., helping others, working together, service projects).

      • SS02-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify traits of character (e.g., honesty, courage, cooperation and patriotism) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.

    • SS02-S3C5. Concept / Standard:

      Government Systems of the World

      • SS02-S3C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

  • AZ.SS02-S4 Strand: Geography

    • SS02-S4C1. Concept / Standard: The World in Spatial Terms

      The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

      • SS02-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize different types of maps (e.g., political, physical, thematic) serve various purposes.

      • SS02-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Interpret political and physical maps using the following elements

        a) alpha numeric grids; b) title; c) compass rose - cardinal directions; d) key (legend); e) symbols.

      • SS02-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct a map of a familiar place (e.g., school, home, neighborhood, fictional place) that includes a title, compass rose, symbols and key (legend).

      • SS02-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct tally charts and pictographs to display geographic information (e.g., birthplace - city or state).

      • SS02-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Recognize characteristics of human and physical features

        a) physical (i.e., ocean, continent, river, lake, mountain range, coast, sea, desert); b) human (i.e., equator, Northern and Southern Hemispheres, North and South Poles).

      • SS02-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Locate physical and human features using maps, illustrations, images, or globes

        a) physical (i.e., ocean, continent, river, lake, mountain range, coast, sea, desert); b) human (i.e., equator Northern and Southern Hemispheres, North and South Poles, city, state, country).

    • SS02-S4C2. Concept / Standard: Places and Regions

      Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

      • SS02-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify through images of content studied (e.g., Japan, China, United States) how places have distinct characteristics.

      • SS02-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss human features (e.g., cities, parks, railroad tracks, hospitals, shops, schools) in the world.

      • SS02-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss physical features (e.g., mountains, rivers, deserts) in the world.

      • SS02-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss the ways places change over time.

    • SS02-S4C3. Concept / Standard: Physical Systems

      Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

      • SS02-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Measure and record weather conditions, identify clouds and analyze their relationship to temperature and weather patterns.

    • SS02-S4C4. Concept / Standard: Human Systems

      Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

      • SS02-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss housing and land use in urban and rural communities.

      • SS02-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the reasons (e.g., jobs, climate, family) for human settlement patterns.

      • SS02-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss the major economic activities and land use (e.g., natural resources, agricultural, industrial, residential, commercial, recreational) of areas studied.

      • SS02-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe elements of culture (e.g., food, clothing, housing, sports, customs, beliefs) in a community of areas studied.

      • SS02-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss that Asian civilizations have changed from past to present.

      • SS02-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize the connections between city, state, country, and continent.

    • SS02-S4C5. Concept / Standard: Environment and Society

      Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

      • SS02-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify ways (e.g., agriculture, structures, roads) in which humans depend upon, adapt to, and impact the earth.

      • SS02-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize ways of protecting natural resources.

    • SS02-S4C6. Concept / Standard: Geographic Applications

      Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

      • SS02-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss geographic concepts related to current events.

      • SS02-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use geography concepts and skills (e.g., patterns, mapping, graphing) to find solutions for problems (e.g., trash, leaky faucets, bike paths, traffic patterns) in the environment.

  • AZ.SS02-S5 Strand: Economics

    • SS02-S5C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Economics

      The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss how scarcity requires people to make choices due to their unlimited needs and wants with limited resources.

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss that opportunity cost occurs when people make choices and something is given up (e.g., if you go to the movies, you can't also go to the park).

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify differences among natural resources (e.g., water, soil, and wood), human resources (e.g., people at work), and capital resources (e.g., machines, tools and buildings).

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize that people trade for goods and services.

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the use of barter and money in the exchange for goods and services (e.g., trade a toy for candy, buying candy with money).

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Recognize that some goods are made in the local community and some are made in other parts of the world.

      • SS02-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss how people can be both producers and consumers of goods and services.

    • SS02-S5C2. Concept / Standard:

      Microeconomics

      • SS02-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S5C3. Concept / Standard:

      Macroeconomics

      • SS02-S5C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S5C4. Concept / Standard:

      Global Economics

      • SS02-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS02-S5C5. Concept / Standard: Personal Finance

      Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

      • SS02-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss costs and benefits of personal savings.

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