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Arizona: 6th-Grade Standards

AZ.SS06-S1 Strand: American History

  • SS06-S1C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

    Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Construct charts, graphs, and narratives using historical data.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Construct timelines of the historical era being studied (e.g., presidents/world leaders, key events, people).

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.

    • SS06-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

  • SS06-S1C2. Concept / Standard: Early Civilizations Pre 1500

    The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations made significant contributions to the later development of the United States.

    • SS06-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the characteristics of hunting and gathering societies in the Americas.

    • SS06-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how farming methods and domestication of animals led to the development of cultures and civilizations from hunting and gathering societies.

    • SS06-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the cultures of the Mogollon, Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi), and Hohokam

      a) location, agriculture, housing, arts, and trade networks; b) how these cultures adapted to and altered their environment.

    • SS06-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian mound-building cultures

      a) location, agriculture, housing, arts, and trade networks; b) how these cultures adapted to and altered their environment.

    • SS06-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan/Inkan civilizations

      a) location, agriculture, housing, and trade networks; b) achievements (e.g., mathematics, astronomy, architecture, government, social structure, arts and crafts); c) how these cultures adapted to and altered their environment.

  • SS06-S1C3. Concept / Standard:

    Exploration and Colonization

    • SS06-S1C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C4. Concept / Standard:

    Revolution and New Nation

    • SS06-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C5. Concept / Standard:

    Westward Expansion

    • SS06-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C6. Concept / Standard:

    Civil War and Reconstruction

    • SS06-S1C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C7. Concept / Standard:

    Emergence of the Modern United States

    • SS06-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C8. Concept / Standard:

    Great Depression and World War II

    • SS06-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C9. Concept / Standard:

    Postwar United States

    • SS06-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS06-S1C10 Concept / Standard: Contemporary United States 1970s - Present

    Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

    • SS06-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS06-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues studied at this grade level using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS06-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how key political, social, and economic events of the late 20th century and early 21st century affected, and continue to affect, the United States.

  • AZ.SS06-S2 Strand: World History

    • SS06-S2C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

      Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct charts, graphs, and narratives using historical data.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct timelines of the historical era being studied (e.g., presidents/world leaders, key events, people).

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.

      • SS06-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

    • SS06-S2C2. Concept / Standard: Early Civilizations

      The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations significantly influenced the development of later civilizations.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the lifestyles of humans in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Determine how the following factors influenced groups of people to develop into civilizations in Egypt, India, Mesopotamia, and China

        a) farming methods; b) domestication of animals; c) division of labor; d) geographic factors.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the importance of the following river valleys in the development of ancient civilizations

        a) Tigris and Euphrates - Mesopotamia; b) Nile - Egypt; c) Huang He - China; d) Indus- India.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Compare the forms of government of the following ancient civilizations

        a) Mesopotamia - laws of Hammurabi; b) Egypt - theocracy; c) China - dynasty.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the religious traditions that helped shape the culture of the following ancient civilizations

        a) Sumeria, India (i.e., polytheism); b) Egypt (i.e., belief in an afterlife); c) China (i.e., ancestor worship); d) Middle East (i.e., monotheism).

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Analyze the impact of cultural and scientific contributions of ancient civilizations on later civilizations

        a) Mesopotamia (i.e., laws of Hammurabi); b) Egypt (i.e., mummification, hieroglyphs, papyrus); c) China (i.e., silk, gun powder/fireworks, compass); d) Central and South America (i.e., astronomy, agriculture).

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the development of the following types of government and citizenship in ancient Greece and Rome

        a) democracy; b) republics/empires.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe scientific and cultural advancements (e.g., networks of roads, aqueducts, art and architecture, literature and theatre, mathematics, philosophy) in ancient civilizations.

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Identify the roles and contributions of individuals in the following ancient civilizations

        a) Greece and Greek empires (i.e., Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Sophocles, Euripides, Pericles, Homer, Alexander the Great); b) Rome (i.e., Julius Caesar, Augustus); c) China (i.e., Qin Shi Huan Di, Confucius); d) Egypt (i.e., Hatshepsut, Ramses, Cleopatra)

      • SS06-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the transition from the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire

        a) 'decline and fall' of the Roman Empire; b) Empire split in eastern and western regions; c) capital moved to Byzantium/Constantinople; d) Germanic invasions.

    • SS06-S2C3. Concept / Standard: World in Transition

      People of different regions developed unique civilizations and cultural identities characterized by increased interaction, societal complexity and competition.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe aspects (e.g., geographic origins, founders and their teachings, traditions, customs, beliefs) of Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the development of the Medieval kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

        a) Islamic influences; b) mining of gold and salt; c) centers of commerce.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the culture and way of life of the Arab Empire

        a) Muslim religion (i.e., Mohammad, Mecca); b) extensive trade and banking network; c) interest in science (i.e., medicine, astronomy); d) translation and preservation of Greek and Roman literature.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the Catholic Church's role in the following activities during the Middle Ages

        a) Crusades; b) Inquisition; c) education; d) government; e) spread of Christianity.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the transition from feudalism to nationalism at the end of the Middle Ages.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the trade routes that established the exchange of goods (e.g., silk, salt, spices, gold) between eastern and western civilizations during the 15th and 16th centuries.

      • SS06-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how trade routes led to the exchange of ideas (e.g., religion, scientific advances, literature) between Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East during the 15th and 16th centuries.

    • SS06-S2C4. Concept / Standard: Renaissance and Reformation

      The rise of individualism challenged traditional western authority and belief systems resulting in a variety of new institutions, philosophical and religious ideas, and cultural and social achievements.

      • SS06-S2C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe how the Renaissance was a time of renewal and advancement in Europe

        a) rebirth of Greek and Roman ideas; b) new ideas and products as a result of trade; c) the arts; d) science.

      • SS06-S2C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the contributions or accomplishments of the following individuals during the Renaissance and Reformation

        a) Leonardo da Vinci; b) Michelangelo; c) Gutenberg; d) Martin Luther.

    • SS06-S2C5. Concept / Standard: Encounters and Exchange

      Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.

      • SS06-S2C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe how new ways of thinking in Europe during the Enlightenment fostered the following changes in society

        a) Scientific Revolution (i.e., Copernicus, Galileo, Newton); b) natural rights (i.e., life, liberty, property); c) governmental separation of powers vs. monarchy; d) religious freedom; e) Magna Carta.

    • SS06-S2C6. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Revolution

      • SS06-S2C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S2C7. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Imperialism

      • SS06-S2C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S2C8. Concept / Standard:

      World at War

      • SS06-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S2C9. Concept / Standard: Contemporary World

      The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

      • SS06-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

      • SS06-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

  • AZ.SS06-S3 Strand: Civics/Government

    • SS06-S3C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Government

      The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

      • SS06-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss the important ideas of the Enlightenment Period (e.g., Natural Rights, separation of powers, religious freedom) that fostered the creation of the United States government.

    • SS06-S3C2. Concept / Standard:

      Structure of Government

      • SS06-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S3C3. Concept / Standard: Functions of Government

      Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.

      • SS06-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of the Laws of Hammurabi on the lives of ancient people and how it relates to current laws.

      • SS06-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of the Greek democracy on ancient Greeks and how it relates to current forms of government.

      • SS06-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of the Roman republic on ancient Romans and how it relates to current forms of government.

    • SS06-S3C4. Concept / Standard: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship

      The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

      • SS06-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.

      • SS06-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss the character traits (i.e., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States.

      • SS06-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).

    • SS06-S3C5. Concept / Standard: Government Systems of the World

      Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions.

      • SS06-S3C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the structure of the following governments

        a) theocracy; b) dictatorship; c) republic; d) monarchy; e) democracy; f) anarchy.

  • AZ.SS06-S4 Strand: Geography

    • SS06-S4C1. Concept / Standard: The World in Spatial Terms

      The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

      • SS06-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct maps, charts, and graphs to display geographic information.

      • SS06-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify purposes of, and differences among, maps, globes, aerial photographs, charts, and satellite images.

      • SS06-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret maps, charts, and geographic databases using geographic information.

      • SS06-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Locate physical and human features (e.g., significant waterways, mountain ranges, cities, countries) in the United States and in regions of the world on a map.

      • SS06-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret thematic maps, graphs, charts, and databases depicting various aspects of world regions. (Apply to regions studied).

    • SS06-S4C2. Concept / Standard: Places and Regions

      Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

      • SS06-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify regions studied in Strand 2 using a variety of criteria (e.g., climate, landforms, culture, vegetation).

      • SS06-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the factors that cause regions and places to change.

      • SS06-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the interactions of people in different places and regions.

      • SS06-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain why places and regions serve as cultural symbols such as Jerusalem being a sacred place for Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

      • SS06-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the physical and human characteristics of places and regions of a Middle Eastern country studied.

    • SS06-S4C3. Concept / Standard: Physical Systems

      Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

      • SS06-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the physical processes that influence the formation and location of resources such as oil, coal, diamonds, and copper.

      • SS06-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Evaluate the effects of, and describe how people plan for and respond to natural disasters.

      • SS06-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how sunlight, water quality, climate, population density and pollution affect quality of life.

      • SS06-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the composition of and interactions between bodies of water and the atmosphere.

      • SS06-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain the water cycle and factors that affect climate.

    • SS06-S4C4. Concept / Standard: Human Systems

      Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

      • SS06-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret the demographic structure of places and regions using a population pyramid.

      • SS06-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the environmental, economic, cultural, and political effects of human migrations and cultural diffusion on places and regions.

      • SS06-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze the causes and effects of settlement patterns.

      • SS06-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify how factors such as river/coastal civilizations and trade influenced the location, distribution, and interrelationships of economic activities over time and in different regions.

      • SS06-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify cultural norms that influence different social, political, and economic activities of men and women.

    • SS06-S4C5. Concept / Standard: Environment and Society

      Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

      • SS06-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe ways that human dependence on natural resources influences economic development, settlement, trade, and migration.

      • SS06-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the intended and unintended consequences of human modification (e.g., irrigation, aqueducts, canals) on the environment.

      • SS06-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how changes in the natural environment (e.g., flooding of the Nile) can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activities.

      • SS06-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the way humans respond to/prepare for natural hazards (i.e., lightning, flash floods, dust storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes) in order to remain safe.

    • SS06-S4C6. Concept / Standard: Geographic Applications

      Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

      • SS06-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe ways geographic features and conditions influenced settlement in various locations (e.g., near waterways, on high terrain, with adequate fresh water, on good land for farming, in temperate climates) throughout different periods of time, places, and regions.

      • SS06-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use geographic knowledge and skills (e.g., recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing) when discussing current events.

  • AZ.SS06-S5 Strand: Economics

    • SS06-S5C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Economics

      The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

      • SS06-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify how limited resources and unlimited human wants cause people to choose some things and give up others.

      • SS06-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Determine how scarcity, opportunity costs, and trade-offs influence decision-making.

      • SS06-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain why specialization improves standards of living.

      • SS06-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare how money, as opposed to barter, facilitates trade.

      • SS06-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how trade promoted economic growth throughout world regions.

    • SS06-S5C2. Concept / Standard:

      Microeconomics

      • SS06-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S5C3. Concept / Standard:

      Macroeconomics

      • SS06-S5C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S5C4. Concept / Standard:

      Global Economics

      • SS06-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS06-S5C5. Concept / Standard: Personal Finance

      Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

      • SS06-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the cost and benefits of using credit.

      • SS06-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how interest is the price paid to borrow money.

      • SS06-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the factors lenders consider before lending money.

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