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Colorado: 4th-Grade Standards

CO.1. Standard: History

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Develop an understanding of how people view, construct, and interpret history
  2. Analyze key historical periods and patterns of change over time within and across nations and cultures

CO.1.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Organize and sequence events to understand the concepts of chronology and cause and effect in the history of Colorado

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Construct a timeline of events showing the relationship of events in Colorado history with events in United States and world history
  • b. Analyze primary source historical accounts related to Colorado history to understand cause-and-effect relationships
  • c. Explain the cause-and-effect relationships in the interactions among people and cultures that have lived in or migrated to Colorado
  • d. Identify and describe how major political and cultural groups have affected the development of the region

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How have past events influenced present day Colorado and the Rocky Mountain region?
  2. Why is it important to know the sequence of events and people in Colorado history?
  3. How can primary sources help us learn about the past or create more questions
    about our state’s history?
  4. What social and economic decisions caused people to locate in various regions of Colorado?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Individuals recognize important events and can put them in chronological order to understand cause and effect such as migration west and clashes with Native Americans; discovery of gold and the Gold Rush; the growth of cities and towns and the development of law; the development of the state Constitution; and prohibition of slavery.
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers analyze patterns and themes throughout time.
  2. Historical thinkers use chronology to organize time and to study cause-and-effect relationships.
  3. Historical thinkers use primary sources as references for research.

CO.1.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas and themes in Colorado history and their relationships to key events in the United States

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Analyze various eras in Colorado history and the relationship between these eras and eras in United States history, and the changes in Colorado over time
  • b. Describe interactions among people and cultures that have lived in Colorado
  • c. Describe the development of the political structure in Colorado history. Topics to include but not limited to an understanding of the Colorado Constitution and the relationship between state and national government
  • d. Describe the impact of various technological developments. Topics to include but not limited to the state of Colorado, including changes in mining technology; changes in transportation; early 20th century industrial changes; and mid- to late 20th century nuclear and computer technological changes

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. In what ways have geographic, economic, cultural, and technological changes influenced Colorado today?
  2. Why did people of various cultures migrate to and settle in Colorado?
  3. To what extent have unity and diversity shaped Colorado?
  4. How have various individuals, groups, and ideas affected the development of Colorado?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The context and information from the past is used to make connections and inform current decisions. For example, Colorado has had a history of boom and bust cycles that should influence the decisions of city and state planners.
  2. Technological developments continue to evolve and affect the present. For example, environmental issues have had an impact on Colorado from the Gold Rush to modern pollution.
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers analyze patterns and themes across time periods.
  2. Historical thinkers seek accounts of history from multiple perspectives and from multiple sources.

CO.2. Standard: Geography

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Develop spatial understanding, perspectives, and personal connections to the world
  2. Examine places and regions and the connections among them

CO.2.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Use several types of geographic tools to answer questions about the geography of Colorado

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Answer questions about Colorado regions using maps and other geographic tools
  • b. Use geographic grids to locate places on maps and images to answer questions
  • c. Create and investigate geographic questions about Colorado in relation to other places
  • d. Illustrate, using geographic tools, how places in Colorado have changed and developed over time due to human activity
  • e. Describe similarities and differences between the physical geography of Colorado and its neighboring states

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. Which geographic tools are best to locate information about a place?
  2. Why did settlements and large cities develop where they did in Colorado?
  3. How are the regions of Colorado defined by geography?
  4. How does the physical location of Colorado affect its relationship with other regions of the United States and the world?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Individuals and businesses learn how to use geographic tools to answer questions about their state and region to make informed choices. For example, a family reads a weather map and researches road conditions to inform their decision to go to the mountains in the winter.
  2. Individuals and businesses use geographic tools to collect and analyze data regarding the area where they live.
Nature of Geography:
  1. Spatial thinkers gather appropriate tools to formulate and answer questions related to space and place.
  2. Spatial thinkers use tools to compare and contrast geographic locations.

CO.2.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Connections within and across human and physical systems are developed

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Describe how the physical environment provides opportunities for and places constraints on human activities
  • b. Explain how physical environments influenced and limited immigration into the state
  • c. Analyze how people use geographic factors in creating settlements and have adapted to and modified the local physical environment
  • d. Describe how places in Colorado are connected by movement of goods and services and technology

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What physical characteristics led various cultural groups to select the places they did for settlement in Colorado?
  2. How did Colorado settlers alter their environment to facilitate communication and transportation?
  3. How does the physical environment affect human activity?
  4. How does human activity affect the environment?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Individuals and businesses consider geographic factors in making settlement decisions. For example, Colorado Springs has a dry climate that is favorable for computer companies, and ski resorts developed in the Rocky Mountains.
  2. Individuals and businesses adapt to and modify the environment. For example, businesses and resorts have been created near hot springs throughout the state.
Nature of Geography:
  1. Spatial thinkers evaluate how physical features affect the development of a sense of place.

CO.3. Standard: Economics

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market interaction, and public policy
  2. Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

CO.3.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • People respond to positive and negative incentives

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Define positive and negative economic incentives
  • b. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Colorado in different historical periods and their connection to economic incentives
  • c. Explain how the productive resources – natural, human, and capital – of Colorado have influenced the types of goods produced and services provided

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. Why are different goods and services important at different times in Colorado’s history?
  2. How have science and technology changed the economy of Colorado?
  3. How have natural, human, and capital resources had both positive and negative impacts on the development of Colorado?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Positive incentives influence behavior predictably over time. For example, responsible individuals save for the future and move for better job opportunities.
  2. Negative incentives influence behavior predictably over time.For example, people move or refuse to relocate due to poor climate or resource shortages.
  3. Groups use both positive and negative incentives to affect behavior. For example, the tourism industry uses incentives to attract tourists and government agencies use tickets to discourage speeding. and fines for not following regulations
Nature of Economics:
  1. Economic thinkers consider the influence of changing resources and demand on the productivity of a state economy.
  2. Economic thinkers study changes in the relationship between the availabilityof resources and the production of goods and services.

CO.3.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The relationship between choice and opportunity cost (PFL)

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Define choice and opportunity cost
  • b. Analyze different choices and their opportunity costs
  • c. Give examples of the opportunity costs for individual decisions
  • Identify risks that individuals face (PFL)
  • Analyze methods of limiting financial
    risk (PFL)

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What different ways does an individual have to get information when making a decision?
  2. How do you know when you’ve made a good decision?
  3. How do you know when you’ve made a bad decision?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Knowledge of the relationship between choice and opportunity cost leads to good decision-making. For example, a business may have an opportunity to purchase inexpensive land, but the cost may be in the travel time.
  2. Decisions are made daily regarding risks such as riding a bicycle, skiing, riding in a car, and spending all of an allowance immediately rather than saving.
  3. Businesses make choices about risk.For example, a company locates in a country that has an unstable government or extends credit to individuals.
Nature of Economics:
  1. Economic thinkers analyze opportunity costs associated with making decisions.
  2. Economic thinkers analyze data to forecast possible outcomes.
  3. Financially responsible individuals understand and categorize the components of risk.
  4. Financially responsible individuals mitigate and analyze potential risk.

CO.4. Standard: Civics

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Analyze origins, structure, and functions of governments and their impacts on societies and citizens
  2. Analyze and practice rights, roles, and responsibilities of citizens

CO.4.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Analyze and debate multiple perspectives on an issue

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Give examples of issues faced by the state and develop possible solutions
  • b. Provide supportive arguments for both sides of a current public policy debate
  • c. Discuss how various individuals and groups influence the way an issue affecting the state is viewed and resolved

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How can government answer questions about issues in a state in various ways?
  2. How do diverse opinions enrich a community?
  3. How does an individual’s experience and background influence perception of an issue?
  4. Why is it important to research issues and engage in civil debates?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The art of debate, critical reasoning, and active listening are skills that foster informed choices. For example, school boards review the pros and cons of an issue such as dress code and make a policy decision.
  2. The ability to critically analyze multiple perspectives for solutions allows for improved problem-solving. For example, members of a social organization review multiple proposals to select a philanthropic cause for the year.
  3. Situations may be fairer because of rules such as taking turns on playground equipment.
Nature of Civics:
  1. Responsible community members recognize opportunities to study the effectiveness of various ways to influence state public policy or help industry create an environmentally conscious development.
  2. Responsible community members understand the relationships between state government and citizens.

CO.4.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The origins, structure, and functions of the Colorado government

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Explain the origins, structure, and functions of the three branches of the state government and the relationships among them
  • b. Identify and explain a variety of roles leaders, citizens, and others play in state government
  • c. Identify and explain the services state government provides and how those services are funded
  • d. Explain the historical foundation and the events that led to the formation of the Colorado government
  • e. Describe how the decisions of the state government affect local government and interact with federal law

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. Why is Colorado’s Constitution important to individuals?
  2. What would state government look like if one of the branches had more power than the others?
  3. What would Colorado be like without a state government?
  4. To what extent were various individuals and organizations in the state important in the development of Colorado’s government?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Knowledge of the origins, structure, and functions of Colorado’s government provides for participation, influence and benefits. For example, individuals can vote on ballot issues that affect taxes.
  2. Technology helps to investigate resources and ask for government support and services. For example, someone wanting to open a restaurant can visit the Department of Health website to get information.
Nature of Civics:
  1. Responsible community members understand the structure, function, and origin of the state government.
 
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