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Colorado: 9th-Grade Standards

CO.1. Standard: History

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Develop an understanding of how people view, construct, and interpret history
  2. Analyze key historical periods and patterns of change over time within and across nations and cultures

CO.1.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Use the historical method of inquiry to ask questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, critically analyze and interpret data, and develop interpretations defended by evidence

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Evaluate a historical source for point of view and historical context
  • b. Gather and analyze historical information, including contradictory data, from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including sources located on the Internet, to support or reject hypotheses
  • c. Construct and defend a written historical argument using relevant primary and secondary sources as evidence
  • d. Differentiate between facts and historical interpretations, recognizing that a historian’s narrative reflects his or her judgment about the significance of particular facts

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How does the point of view of the historian impact how history is interpreted?
  2. What qualifies an event as historically significant rather than simply noteworthy?
  3. What if the history of a war was told by the losing side?
  4. Why are historical questions important?
  5. How do historical thinkers use primary and secondary sources to formulate historical arguments?
  6. How might historical inquiry be used to make decisions on contemporary issues?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Historical information and context are used to interpret, evaluate, and inform decisions or policies regarding such issues as discrimination of various groups – women, indigenous people – throughout history and religious conflicts - the Middle East Peace process, the troubles between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland, conflicts in Africa and genocide.
  2. The historical method of inquiry is used to continue to interpret and refine history. For example, new information and discoveries regarding the origins of the Cold War and new insights into the relationship between Europeans and Africans during the early era of colonization change the interpretation of history.
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers evaluate historical sources for audience, purpose, point of view, context, and authenticity
  2. Historical thinkers use primary and secondary sources to evaluate and develop hypotheses and interpretations of historical events and figures

CO.1.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The key concepts of continuity and change, cause and effect, complexity, unity and diversity over time

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • World history (both East and West including modern world history):
    • a. Evaluate continuity and change over the course of world history
    • b. Investigate causes and effects of significant events in world history
    • c. Analyze the complexity of events in world history
    • d. Examine and evaluate issues of unity and diversity in world history
  • United States history (Reconstruction to the present):
    • e. Analyze continuity and change in eras over the course of United States history
    • f. Investigate causes and effects of significant events in United States history. Topics to include but not limited to WWI, Great Depression, Cold War
    • g. Analyze the complexity of events in United States history. Topics to include but not limited to the suffrage movement and the Civil Rights Movement
    • h. Examine and evaluate issues of unity and diversity from Reconstruction to present. Topics to include but not limited to the rise and fall of Jim Crow, role of patriotism, and the role of religion

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What impact have individuals had on history?
  2. How has culture defined civilization?
  3. How does society decide what is important in history?
  4. What ideas have united people over time?
  5. How has diversity impacted the concepts of change over time?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The complex relationships among change, diversity and unity have long-lasting impacts on the cultural, political, and ideological components in society. For example, there is a need to understand cultural traditions and history in order to interact in the international world of business.
  2. The complex interrelationship between the past and the present is evident when solving issues over time. For example, human interaction with the environment has been a critical issue throughout history and continues to be a factor in pollution, climate change, and resource management.
  3. Businesses and individuals use history to understand the feasibility of new ideas and markets.
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers analyze the significance of interactions among eras,ideas, individuals, and groups
  2. Historical thinkers organize events into chronological eras and periods
  3. Historical thinkers use chronology to organize time.
  4. Historical thinkers study cause and effect, patterns, themes, and interdependence of events.

CO.2. Standard: Geography

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Develop spatial understanding, perspectives, and personal connections to the world
  2. Examine places and regions and the connections among them

CO.1.3. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The significance of ideas as powerful forces throughout history

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • World history (both East and West; to include but not be limited to modern world history):
    • a. Discuss the historical development and impact of major world religions and philosophies. Topics to include but not limited to the Enlightenment and modern changes in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism
    • b. Investigate the historical development of and impact of major scientific and technological innovations. Topics to include but not limited to the Industrial Revolution
    • c. Evaluate the historical development and impact of political thought, theory and actions
    • d. Analyze the origins of fundamental political debates and how conflict, compromise, and cooperation have shaped national unity and diversity. Topics to include but not limited to suffrage, Civil Rights and the role of government
    • e. Analyze ideas critical to the understanding of American history. Topics to include but not limited to populism, progressivism, isolationism, imperialism, anti-communism, environmentalism, liberalism, fundamentalism, and conservatism
    • f. Describe and analyze the historical development and impact of the arts and literature on the culture of the United States

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What if the belief "all men are created equal" did not exist?
  2. Which ideas provide the greatest insight to understanding a culture or nation’s history?
  3. How has music, art, and literature reflected powerful ideas throughout history?
  4. How have philosophical and religious traditions affected the development of political institutions?
  5. How have scientific and technological developments affected societies?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The world is interconnected through the exchange of ideas as evident in science, technology, and economies. Examples include the printing press, trade routes, spread of information through the Internet, scientists working collaboratively but living in different countries, and instant reporting on the Internet.
  2. Philosophies, religions, and other powerful ideas have developed over time and across the world. Examples include the spread of religions around the globe, minority rights over time, exploration of space and the oceans, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
  3. Literature, art (drama, music, dance) reflect and express powerful ideas over time, such as equal rights, civil disobedience, religious thought and expression, government issues)
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers study and analyze the impacts that arise from the interaction of political, philosophical, technological, artistic, and scientific thought.

CO.2.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Use different types of maps and geographic tools to analyze features on Earth to investigate and solve geographic questions

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Gather data, make inferences and draw conclusions from maps and other visual representations
  • b. Create and interpret various graphs, tables, charts, and thematic maps
  • c. Analyze and present information using a variety of geographic tools and geographic findings in graphs, tables, charts, and thematic maps
  • d. Locate physical and human features and evaluate their implications for society

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What is the significance of spatial orientation, place, and location?
  2. How can maps be used for political purposes?
  3. How can current world events change maps?
  4. How do the division and control of the physical, social, political, and cultural spaces on Earth
    cause cooperation or conflict?
  5. What would the world map look like if physical geography was the defining variable for country boundaries?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Geographic tools, such as satellite imagery, GIS, GPS, are used to place world events and study human activities over time and provide deeper understanding of the world. For example, satellite imagery is used to track the disappearance of the Aral Sea, find the location of lost cities and measure the melting of ice caps.
  2. Thelocationofresources,physicalboundaries,andnaturalhazardsaffecthumaninteraction such as conflicts over water rights, and location of resources in relation to trade routes and consumers.
  3. Technology is used to gather and graph geographic information to inform decisions. For example, weather and climate patterns affect the farming industry, and population and migration patterns affect city planners and Realtors
  4. Technology is used to collect and communicate geographic data such as the distribution of resources and its influence on population density.
Nature of Geography:
  1. Spatial thinkers use geographic tools to discover and investigate geographic patterns.

CO.2.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Conflict and cooperation occur over space and resources

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Analyze how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape patterns of human population, interdependence, cooperation and conflict
  • b. Compare how differing geographic perspectives apply to a historic issue
  • c. Interpret from a geographic perspective the expansion of the United States by addressing issues of land, security, and sovereignty

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How will the location of resources lead to cooperation or conflict in the future?
  2. How has conflict over space and resources influenced human migration?
  3. How have differing perspectives regarding resource and land use lead to cooperative policies or conflict?
  4. How would human settlement patterns be different if people did not trade resources with others?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Nations are working cooperatively or are engaged in conflict over the division and control of land, water, and other resources.
  2. Individuals and groups make choices regarding the use of space and resources in society. For example, various nations and groups fought over the resources of the United States and businesses and individuals have raced for land and resources throughout history including the Gold Rush and the Western land rush.
Nature of Geography:
  1. Spatial thinkers study how factors influence the allocation and use of space and resources.
  2. Spatial thinkers study how different perspectives affect cooperation and conflict over space and resources.

CO.3. Standard: Economics

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market interaction, and public policy
  2. Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

CO.3.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Economic freedom, including free trade, is important for economic growth

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Give examples of international differences in resources, productivity, and prices that provide a basis for international trade
  • b. Describe the factors that lead to a nation having a comparative and absolute advantage in trade
  • c. Explain effects of domestic policies on international trade
  • d. Identify examples to illustrate that consumers ultimately determine what is produced in a market economy
  • e. Explain why nations often restrict trade by using quotas, tariffs, and non-tariff barriers

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How do societies benefit from trade and exchange?
  2. Why is it important for nations to control trade and exchange?
  3. What are the benefits and challenges of trade at the international, national, state, local, and individual levels?
  4. How does where and how you purchase products affect the social, economic, and environmental conditions?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The understanding of trade and collaboration within the market economy is important to business and individual economic success.
  2. Analysis of the positive and negative impacts of trade agreements is critical to a nation’s economy. For example, the Santa Fe Trail and the opening of trade with Japan in American history.
  3. Identification of the role of information as a good or service and its influence on production, trade, income, and technological advances aids businesses to operate efficiently.
  4. Innovation and invention create absolute or comparative advantage in trade
Nature of Economics:
  1. Economic thinkers explore the patterns and development of the interconnected nature of trade.
  2. Economic thinkers analyze the components of economic growth.

CO.3.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Manage personal credit and debt (PFL)

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Identify and differentiate between purposes and reasons for debt
  • b. Analyze benefits and costs of credit and debt
  • c. Compare sources of credit
  • d. Describe the components of a credit history

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. Why is understanding credit and debt important?
  2. How do you manage debt?
  3. Why is it important to know about different types of credit?
  4. How do you view debt and credit?
  5. When is debt useful?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Technology aids in the research of purchases to find the lowest available cost, compare sources of credit, and track debt.
  2. Analysis of the cost of borrowing helps to determine how to manage debt for such items as higher education and automobile purchases.
  3. Technology is used to research credit history, credit scores, and the variables that impact a credit history to protect personal financial security.
Nature of Economics:
  1. Financially responsible individuals manage debt.
  2. Financially responsible individuals understand the responsibilities associated with the use of credit.

CO.4. Standard: Civics

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Analyze origins, structure, and functions of governments and their impacts on societies and citizens
  2. Analyze and practice rights, roles, and responsibilities of citizens

CO.4.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Research, formulate positions, and engage in appropriate civic participation to address local, state, and national issues or policies

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Engage ethically in civic activities including discussing current issues, advocating for their rights and the rights of others, practicing their responsibilities, influencing governmental actions, and other community service learning opportunities
  • b. Evaluate how individuals and groups can effectively use the structure and functions of various levels of government to shape policy
  • c. Describe the roles and influence of individuals, groups, and the press as checks on governmental practices
  • d. Identify which level of government is appropriate for various policies and demonstrate an ability to appropriately engage with that level of government
  • e. Critique various media sources for accuracy and perspective

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What is the meaning of civic participation in a democratic republic?
  2. How do citizens act as a •check• on government?
  3. What strategies can citizens use most effectively to influence public policy?
  4. How do people resolve differences while remaining respectful of multiple perspectives?
  5. Why should you participate in government?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Decision-making involves researching an issue, listening to multiple perspectives, and weighing potential consequences of alternative actions. For example, citizens study the issues before voting.
  2. Participation in a local or national issue involves research, planning, and implementing appropriate and ethical civic engagement. For example, citizens speak at a school board meeting or run for office.
  3. Technology is a tool for researching civic issues, advocating for ideas, and expressing views to elected officials.
Nature of Civics:
  1. Responsible community members research civic issues and act appropriately using a variety of sources from multiple perspectives and communicating views in a respectful, ethical manner.

CO.4.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Purposes of and limitations on the foundations, structures and functions of government

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Describe the origins, purposes and limitations of government and include the contribution of key philosophers and documents
  • b. Identify the structure, function, and roles of members of government and their relationship to democratic values
  • c. Analyze and explain the importance of the principles of democracy and the inherent competition among values. Values to include but not be limited to freedom and security, individual rights and common good, and rights and responsibilities
  • d. Analyze the role of the founding documents and the evolution of their interpretation through governmental action and court cases. Documents to include but not limited to the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  • e. Use media literacy skills to locate multiple valid sources of information regarding the foundations, structures, and functions of government
  • f. Analyze how court decisions, legislative debates, and various and diverse groups have helped to preserve, develop, and interpret the rights and ideals of the American system of government
  • g. Use a variety of resources to identify and evaluate issues that involve civic responsibility, individual rights, and the common good
  • i. Evaluate the effectiveness of our justice system in protecting life, liberty, and property

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What are the most important democratic ideals and practices?
  2. What would society look like if several landmark court cases had been decided differently?
  3. How does government best protect individual rights and the rights of minorities, yet have the majority rule?
  4. What would United States government look like with no checks and balances or another mix of those limitations?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Skills and strategies are used to participate in public life and exercise rights, roles, and responsibilities. For example, eligible individuals vote, individuals pay taxes to support government services, and citizens act as advocates for ideas.
  2. Political issues are covered by the media, and individuals evaluate multiple media accounts using technology.
Nature of Civics:
  1. Responsible community members understand the concept of •rule of law• and its role in policies and practices of the government.
  2. Responsible community members know the political theories that contributed to the foundation and development of the structures of government and their meaning today.
 
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