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Georgia: 8th-Grade Standards

  • GA.SS8H. Strand/topic: Georgia Studies

    Historical Understandings

    • SS8H1. Standard:

      The student will evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia.

      • SS8H1.a. Element:

        Describe the evolution of Native American cultures (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian) prior to European contact.

      • SS8H1.b. Element:

        Evaluate the impact of European contact on Native American cultures; include Spanish missions along the barrier islands, and the explorations of Hernando DeSoto.

      • SS8H1.c. Element:

        Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the French, Spanish, and British in the southeastern area.

    • SS8H2. Standard:

      The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia's history.

      • SS8H2.a. Element:

        Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense), Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah.

      • SS8H2.b. Element:

        Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia's colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.

      • SS8H2.c. Element:

        Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government, and the impact of the royal governors.

    • SS8H3. Standard:

      The student will analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution.

      • SS8H3.a. Element:

        Explain the immediate and long-term causes of the American Revolution and their impact on Georgia; include the French and Indian War (i.e., Seven Years War), Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, and the Declaration of Independence.

      • SS8H3.b. Element:

        Analyze the significance of people and events in Georgia on the Revolutionary War; include Loyalists, patriots, Elijah Clarke, Austin Dabney, Nancy Hart, Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton, Battle of Kettle Creek, and siege of Savannah.

    • SS8H4. Standard:

      The student will describe the impact of events that led to the ratification of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

      • SS8H4.a. Element:

        Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of both the Georgia Constitution of 1777 and the Articles of Confederation and explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to a need to revise the Articles.

      • SS8H4.b. Element:

        Describe the role of Georgia at the Constitutional Convention of 1787; include the role of Abraham Baldwin and William Few, and reasons why Georgia ratified the new constitution.

    • SS8H5. Standard:

      The student will explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of the growth of the United States between 1789 and 1840.

      • SS8H5.a. Element:

        Explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches.

      • SS8H5.b. Element:

        Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the head-right system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo land fraud.

      • SS8H5.c. Element:

        Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia's growth.

      • SS8H5.d. Element:

        Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears.

    • SS8H6. Standard:

      The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia.

      • SS8H6.a. Element:

        Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states' rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.

      • SS8H6.b. Element:

        State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia's coast, Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea, and Andersonville.

      • SS8H6.c. Element:

        Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen's Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.

    • SS8H7. Standard:

      The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

      • SS8H7.a. Element:

        Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.

      • SS8H7.b. Element:

        Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence.

      • SS8H7.c. Element:

        Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.

      • SS8H7.d. Element:

        Give reasons for World War I and describe Georgia's contributions.

    • SS8H8. Standard:

      The student will analyze the important events that occurred after World War I and their impact on Georgia.

      • SS8H8.a. Element:

        Describe the impact of the boll weevil and drought on Georgia.

      • SS8H8.b. Element:

        Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression.

      • SS8H8.c. Element:

        Discuss the impact of the political career of Eugene Talmadge.

      • SS8H8.d. Element:

        Discuss the effect of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural Adjustment Act, rural electrification, and Social Security.

    • SS8H9. Standard:

      The student will describe the impact of World War II on Georgia's development economically, socially, and politically.

      • SS8H9.a. Element:

        Describe the impact of events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include Lend-Lease and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

      • SS8H9.b. Element:

        Evaluate the importance of Bell Aircraft, military bases, the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards, Richard Russell, and Carl Vinson.

      • SS8H9.c. Element:

        Explain the impact of the Holocaust on Georgians.

      • SS8H9.d. Element:

        Discuss the ties to Georgia that President Roosevelt had and his impact on the state.

    • SS8H10. Standard:

      The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970.

      • SS8H10.a. Element:

        Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia's growth.

      • SS8H10.b. Element:

        Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.

      • SS8H10.c. Element:

        Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.

    • SS8H11. Standard:

      The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.

      • SS8H11.a. Element:

        Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia's role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor's race and the end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.

      • SS8H11.b. Element:

        Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.

      • SS8H11.c. Element:

        Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.

    • SS8H12. Standard:

      The student will explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since 1970.

      • SS8H12.a. Element:

        Evaluate the consequences of the end of the county unit system and reapportionment.

      • SS8H12.b. Element:

        Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president.

      • SS8H12.c. Element:

        Analyze the impact of the rise of the two-party system in Georgia.

      • SS8H12.d. Element:

        Evaluate the effect of the 1996 Olympic Games on Georgia.

      • SS8H12.e. Element:

        Evaluate the importance of new immigrant communities to the growth and economy of Georgia.

  • GA.SS8G. Strand/topic: Georgia Studies

    Geographic Understandings

    • SS8G1. Standard:

      The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location.

      • SS8G1.a. Element:

        Locate Georgia in relation to region, nation, continent, and hemispheres.

      • SS8G1.b. Element:

        Describe the five geographic regions of Georgia; include the Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, Appalachian Plateau, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain.

      • SS8G1.c. Element:

        Locate and evaluate the importance of key physical features on the development of Georgia; include the Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian Mountains, Chattahoochee and Savannah Rivers, and barrier islands.

      • SS8G1.d. Element:

        Evaluate the impact of climate on Georgia's development.

    • SS8G2. Standard:

      The student will explain how the Interstate Highway System, Hartsfield- Jackson International Airport, and Georgia's deepwater ports help drive the state's economy.

      • SS8G2.a. Element:

        Explain how the three transportation systems interact to provide domestic and international goods to the people of Georgia.

      • SS8G2.b. Element:

        Explain how the three transportation systems interact to provide producers and service providers in Georgia with national and international markets.

      • SS8G2.c. Element:

        Explain how the three transportation systems provide jobs for Georgians.

  • GA.SS8CG. Strand/topic: Georgia Studies

    Government/Civic Understandings

    • SS8CG1. Standard:

      The student will describe the role of citizens under Georgia's constitution.

      • SS8CG1.a. Element:

        Explain the basic structure of the Georgia state constitution.

      • SS8CG1.b. Element:

        Explain the concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances.

      • SS8CG1.c. Element:

        Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens.

      • SS8CG1.d. Element:

        Explain voting requirements and elections in Georgia.

      • SS8CG1.e. Element:

        Explain the role of political parties in government.

    • SS8CG2. Standard:

      The student will analyze the role of the legislative branch in Georgia state government.

      • SS8CG2.a. Element:

        Explain the qualifications, term, election, and duties of members of the General Assembly.

      • SS8CG2.b. Element:

        Describe the organization of the General Assembly, with emphasis on leadership and the committee system.

      • SS8CG2.c. Element:

        Trace the steps in the legislative process for a bill to become a law in Georgia.

    • SS8CG3. Standard:

      The student will analyze the role of the executive branch in Georgia state government.

      • SS8CG3.a. Element:

        Explain the qualifications, term, election, and duties of the governor and lieutenant governor.

      • SS8CG3.b. Element:

        Describe the organization of the executive branch, with emphasis on major policy areas of state programs.

    • SS8CG4. Standard:

      The student will analyze the role of the judicial branch in Georgia state government.

      • SS8CG4.a. Element:

        Explain the structure of the court system in Georgia, to include trial and appellate procedures, and how judges are selected.

      • SS8CG4.b. Element:

        Explain the difference between criminal law and civil law.

      • SS8CG4.c. Element:

        Describe the history of the juvenile court.

      • SS8CG4.d. Element:

        Compare the juvenile justice system to the adult justice system, emphasizing the different jurisdictions, terminology, and steps in the criminal justice process.

      • SS8CG4.e. Element:

        Describe the rights of juveniles when taken into custody.

      • SS8CG4.f. Element:

        Describe ways to avoid trouble and settle disputes peacefully.

    • SS8CG5. Standard:

      The student will analyze the role of local governments in the state of Georgia.

      • SS8CG5.a. Element:

        Explain the origins, functions, purposes, and differences of county and city governments in Georgia.

      • SS8CG5.b. Element:

        Compare and contrast the weak mayor-council, the strong mayor-council, and the council-manager forms of city government.

      • SS8CG5.c. Element:

        Describe the functions of special-purpose governments.

    • SS8CG6. Standard:

      The student will explain how the Georgia court system treats juvenile offenders.

      • SS8CG6.a. Element:

        Explain the difference between delinquent behavior and unruly behavior and the consequences of each.

      • SS8CG6.b. Element:

        Describe the rights of juveniles when taken into custody.

      • SS8CG6.c. Element:

        Describe the juvenile justice system, emphasizing the different jurisdictions, terminology, and steps in the juvenile justice process.

      • SS8CG6.d. Element:

        Explain the seven delinquent behaviors that can subject juvenile offenders to the adult criminal justice process, how the decision to transfer to adult court is made, and the possible consequences.

  • GA.SS8E. Strand/topic: Georgia Studies

    Economic Understandings

    • SS8E1. Standard:

      The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods.

    • SS8E2. Standard:

      The student will explain the benefits of free trade.

      • SS8E2.a. Element:

        Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time periods.

      • SS8E2.b. Element:

        Explain Georgia's role in world trade today.

    • SS8E3. Standard:

      The student will evaluate the influence of Georgia's economic growth and development.

      • SS8E3.a. Element:

        Define profit and describe how profit is an incentive for entrepreneurs.

      • SS8E3.b. Element:

        Explain how entrepreneurs take risks to develop new goods and services to start a business.

      • SS8E3.c. Element:

        Evaluate the importance of entrepreneurs in Georgia who developed such enterprises as Coca-Cola, Delta Airlines, Georgia-Pacific, and Home Depot.

    • SS8E4. Standard:

      The student will identify revenue sources and services provided by state and local governments.

      • SS8E4.a. Element:

        Trace sources of state revenue such as sales taxes, federal grants, personal income taxes, and property taxes.

      • SS8E4.b. Element:

        Explain the distribution of state revenue to provide services.

      • SS8E4.c. Element:

        Evaluate how choices are made given the limited revenues of state and local governments.

    • SS8E5. Standard:

      The student will explain personal money management choices in terms of income, spending, credit, saving, and investing.

  • GA.SS8RC. Strand/topic: Reading Across the Curriculum

    • SS8RC1. Standard: Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by

      • SS8RC1.a. Element: Reading in All Curriculum Areas

        Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas; Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse; Read technical texts related to various subject areas.

      • SS8RC1.b. Element: Discussing books

        Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas; Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse; Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area; Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline; Examine author's purpose in writing; Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

      • SS8RC1.c. Element: Building vocabulary knowledge

        Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects; Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking; Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.

      • SS8RC1.d. Element: Establishing context

        Explore life experiences related to subject area content; Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related; Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

 
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