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Massachusetts: 12th-Grade Standards

  • MA.1. Domain / General Standard: Concepts and Skills

    The concepts and skills for grades 8 through 12 are defined below. The concepts and skills may be taught at the grade level that each district deems appropriate.

    • 1.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Apply the skills of prekindergarten through grade seven.

    • 1.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Identify multiple ways to express time relationships and dates (for example, 1066 AD is the same as 1066 CE, and both refer to a date in the eleventh or 11th century, which is the same as the 1000s). Identify countries that use a different calendar from the one used in the U.S. and explain the basis for the difference. (H)

    • 1.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Interpret and construct timelines that show how events and eras in various parts of the world are related to one another. (H)

    • 1.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Interpret and construct charts and graphs that show quantitative information. (H, C, G, E)

    • 1.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Explain how a cause and effect relationship is different from a sequence or correlation of events. (H, C, E)

    • 1.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Distinguish between long-term and short-term cause and effect relationships. (H, G, C, E)

    • 1.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Show connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and ideas and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments. (H, G, C, E)

    • 1.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Interpret the past within its own historical context rather than in terms of present-day norms and values. (H, E, C)

    • 1.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Distinguish intended from unintended consequences. (H, E, C)

    • 1.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Distinguish historical fact from opinion. (H, E, C)

    • 1.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      History and Geography: Using historical maps, locate the boundaries of the major empires of world history at the height of their powers. (H, G)

    • 1.12. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      Civics and Government: Define and use correctly the following words and terms: Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus, monarchy, and absolutism. (C)

    • 1.13. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Define and use correctly mercantilism, feudalism, economic growth, and entrepreneur. (E)

    • 1.14. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Explain how people or communities examine and weigh the benefits of each alternative when making a choice and that opportunity costs are those benefits that are given up once one alternative is chosen. (E)

    • 1.15. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Explain how financial markets, such as the stock market, channel funds from savers to investors. (E)

    • 1.16. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Define and use correctly gross domestic product, economic growth, recession, depression, unemployment, inflation, and deflation. (E)

    • 1.17. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Explain how opportunity costs and tradeoffs can be evaluated through an analysis of marginal costs and benefits. (E)

    • 1.18. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Explain how competition among sellers lowers costs and prices, and encourages producers to produce more. (E)

    • 1.19. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Describe the role of buyers and sellers in determining the equilibrium price, and use supply and demand to explain and predict changes in quantity and price. (E)

    • 1.20. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Describe how the earnings of workers are affected by the market value of the product produced and worker skills. (E)

    • 1.21. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Identify the causes of inflation and explain who benefits from inflation and who suffers from inflation. (E)

    • 1.22. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Define and distinguish between absolute and comparative advantage, and explain how most trade occurs because of comparative advantage in the production of a particular good or service. (E)

    • 1.23. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Explain how changes in exchange rates affect balance of trade and the purchasing power of people in the United States and other countries. (E)

    • 1.24. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      General Economics Skills: Differentiate between fiscal and monetary policy. (E)

    • 1.25. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      U.S. Economics Skills: Explain the basic economic functions of the government in the economy of the United States. (E)

    • 1.26. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      U.S. Economics Skills: Examine the development of the banking system in the United States, and describe the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System. (E)

    • 1.27. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      U.S. Economics Skills: Identify and describe laws and regulations adopted in the United States to promote economic competition. (E, H)

    • 1.28. Learning Standard / Outcome: Concepts and Skills

      U.S. Economics Skills: Analyze how federal tax and spending policies affect the national budget and the national debt. (E)

  • MA.2. Domain / General Standard: World History I

    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment: Students study the development of world civilizations after the fall of the Roman Empire. Students study the history of the major empires and political entities of this period: the Ottoman Empire, the Moghul Empire, the Chinese dynasties, the Byzantine Empire, and the major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America.

    • 2.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: On a map of the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and Asia, identify where Islam began and trace the course of its expansion to 1500 AD. (H)

    • 2.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief (the life and teachings of Muhammad). (H)

    • 2.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief (the significance of the Qur'an as the primary source of Islamic belief). (H)

    • 2.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief (Islam's historical relationship to Judaism and Christianity). (H)

    • 2.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief (the relationship between government and religion in Muslim societies). (H)

    • 2.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the causes, course, and effects of Islamic expansion through North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia (the strength of the Islamic world's economy and culture). (H, G)

    • 2.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the causes, course, and effects of Islamic expansion through North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia (the training of Muslim soldiers and the use of advanced military techniques). (H, G)

    • 2.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the causes, course, and effects of Islamic expansion through North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia (the disorganization and internal divisions of Islam's enemies). (H, G)

    • 2.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the causes, course, and effects of Islamic expansion through North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia (the resistance and/or assimilation of Christianized peoples in the Mediterranean). (H, G)

    • 2.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history (the sources of disagreement between Sunnis and Shi'ites). (H, E)

    • 2.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history (the importance of the trade routes connecting the Far East and Europe and the role of the Mongols in increasing trade along these routes, including the silk routes to China). (H, E)

    • 2.12. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history (the relationship of trade to the growth of Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities). (H, E)

    • 2.13. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history (the sources and uses of slaves in Islamic societies as well as the extent of the Islamic slave trade across Africa from 700 AD on). (H, E)

    • 2.14. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the influence and achievements of Islamic civilization during its 'Golden Age.' (the preservation and expansion of Greek thought). (H)

    • 2.15. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the influence and achievements of Islamic civilization during its 'Golden Age.' (Islamic science, philosophy, and mathematics). (H)

    • 2.16. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500: Analyze the influence and achievements of Islamic civilization during its 'Golden Age.' (Islamic architecture). (H)

    • 2.17. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire (the influence of Constantine, including the establishment of Christianity as an officially sanctioned religion). (H)

    • 2.18. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire (the importance of Justinian and the Code of Justinian). (H)

    • 2.19. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire (the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions). (H)

    • 2.20. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire (the construction of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia)). (H)

    • 2.21. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe (the growing influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church). (H, E)

    • 2.22. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe (the differing orders of medieval society, the development of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of western civilization). (H, E)

    • 2.23. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe (the initial emergence of a modern economy, including the growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class). (H, E)

    • 2.24. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe (the economic and social effects of the spread of the Black Death or Bubonic Plague). (H, E)

    • 2.25. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe (the growth and development of the English and French nations). (H, E)

    • 2.26. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500: Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus. (H, C)

    • 2.27. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500: Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and Christianity, including the causes, course, and consequences of the European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. (H)

    • 2.28. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500: Describe the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries, including the capture of Constantinople in 1453. (H)

    • 2.29. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500: Describe the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms after the Reconquest in 1492. (H)

    • 2.30. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Origins of European Western Expansion and the Civilizations of Central and South America: Explain why European nations sent explorers westward and how overseas expansion led to the growth of commerce and the development of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. (H, E)

    • 2.31. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Origins of European Western Expansion and the Civilizations of Central and South America: Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe their political structures, religious practices, economies, art and architecture, and use of slaves. (H, G, E)

    • 2.32. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Origins of European Western Expansion and the Civilizations of Central and South America: Identify the major economic, political, and social effects of the European colonial period in South America. (H, E)

    • 2.33. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Describe the indigenous religious practices observed by early Africans before contact with Islam and Christianity. (H)

    • 2.34. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Explain how extended family/kinship and tribal relationships have shaped indigenous African cultures, and their effects on the political and economic development of African countries. (H, E)

    • 2.35. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Describe the different ways in which Islam and Christianity influenced indigenous African cultures. (H)

    • 2.36. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Identify the locations and time periods of the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. (H, G)

    • 2.37. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Describe important political and economic aspects of the African empires (the economies of these empires (gold, salt, and slaves as commodities for trade by African kings)). (H, E)

    • 2.38. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Describe important political and economic aspects of the African empires (leaders such as Sundiata and Mansa Musa). (H, E)

    • 2.39. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Describe important political and economic aspects of the African empires (Timbuktu as a center of trade and learning). (H, E)

    • 2.40. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      African History to 1800: Describe the development and effects of the trans-African slave trade to the Middle East from the 8th century on, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the Western Hemisphere from the 16th century on. (H, E, G)

    • 2.41. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Indian History to 1800: Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800 (the origins of Indian civilization in the Indus Valley). (H)

    • 2.42. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Indian History to 1800: Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800 (the evolution and central principles of Hinduism). (H)

    • 2.43. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Indian History to 1800: Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800 ( the development of the caste system). (H)

    • 2.44. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Indian History to 1800: Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800 (the influence of Islam and the rise and fall of the Moghul empire). (H)

    • 2.45. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Indian History to 1800: Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800 (artistic and intellectual achievements, including the development of a decimal system). (H)

    • 2.46. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Indian History to 1800: Describe the growth of British influence in India and the emergence of the British Raj. (H)

    • 2.47. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization through the 19th century (the role of kinship and Confucianism in maintaining order and hierarchy). (H)

    • 2.48. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization through the 19th century (the political order established by the various dynasties that ruled China). (H)

    • 2.49. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization through the 19th century (the role of civil servants/scholars in maintaining a stable political and economic order). (H)

    • 2.50. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Describe the growth of commerce and towns in China and the importance of agriculture to the development of the Chinese economy to 1800, including the limited role of slavery. (H)

    • 2.51. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in Japanese history to 1800 (the evolution of Shinto and Japanese Buddhism). (H)

    • 2.52. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in Japanese history to 1800 (the development of feudalism). (H)

    • 2.53. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in Japanese history to 1800 (the rise of the Shoguns and the role of the samurai). (H)

    • 2.54. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Describe Japan's cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea. (H, G)

    • 2.55. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Describe the influence and consequences of Japanese isolationism to 1800. (H, G)

    • 2.56. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800: Explain how Korea has been both a battleground and a cultural bridge between China and Japan. (H, G)

    • 2.57. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg. (H)

    • 2.58. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation (the reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church, including the main ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin). (H)

    • 2.59. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation (the spread of Protestantism across Europe, including the reasons and consequences of England's break with the Catholic Church). (H)

    • 2.60. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation (the weakening of a uniform Christian faith). (H)

    • 2.61. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation (the consolidation of royal power). (H)

    • 2.62. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Explain the purposes and policies of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the influence and ideas of Ignatius Loyola. (H)

    • 2.63. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe: Explain the role of religion in the wars among European nations in the 15th and 16th centuries. (H)

    • 2.64. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe: Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus, Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. (H)

    • 2.65. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe: Describe the concept of Enlightenment in European history and describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot, Kant, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire. (H)

    • 2.66. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe: Explain how the Enlightenment contributed to the growth of democratic principles of government, a stress on reason and progress, and the replacement of a theocentric interpretation of the universe with a secular interpretation. (H)

    • 2.67. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires: Describe the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries into North Africa, Eastern Europe, and throughout the Middle East. (H, E)

    • 2.68. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires: Describe the expansion of Islam into India from the 13th through the 17th century, the role of the Mongols, the rise and fall of the Moghul Empire, and the relationship between Muslims and Hindus. (H, E)

    • 2.69. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History I Learning Standards

      The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires: Account for the declining strength of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 17th century, including the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 and the rapid pace of modernization in European economic, political, religious, scientific, and intellectual life resulting from the ideas embedded in the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)

  • MA.3. Domain / General Standard: World History II

    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present: Students study the rise of the nation state in Europe, the French Revolution, and the economic and political roots of the modern world. They study the origins and consequences of the Industrial Revolution, 19th century political reform in Western Europe, and imperialism in Africa, Asia, and South America.

    • 3.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs (the rise of the French monarchy, including the policies and influence of Louis XIV). (H, C, E)

    • 3.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs (the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia). (H, C, E)

    • 3.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs (the growing power of Russian tsars, including the attempts at Westernization by Peter the Great, the growth of serfdom, and Russia's rise as an important force in Eastern Europe and Asia). (H, C, E)

    • 3.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs (the rise of Prussia). (H, C, E)

    • 3.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs (Poland and Sweden). (H, C, E)

    • 3.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Explain why England was the main exception to the growth of absolutism in royal power in Europe (the causes and essential events of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution of 1688). (H, C)

    • 3.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Explain why England was the main exception to the growth of absolutism in royal power in Europe (the effect of the Glorious Revolution on the development of constitutional government and liberty in England, including the importance of the English Bill of Rights and how it limited the power of the monarch to act without the consent of Parliament). (H, C)

    • 3.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Summarize the important causes and events of the French Revolution (Causes: the effect of Enlightenment political thought; the influence of the American Revolution; economic troubles and the rising influence of the middle class; government corruption and incompetence); (Events: the role of the Estates General and the National Assembly; the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789; the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen; the execution of Louis XVI in 1793; the Terror; the rise and fall of Napoleon; the Congress of Vienna). (H, C, E)

    • 3.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution (its contribution to modern nationalism and its relationship to totalitarianism). (H)

    • 3.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution (the abolition of theocratic absolutism in France). (H)

    • 3.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution (the abolition of remaining feudal restrictions and obligations). (H)

    • 3.12. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Growth of the Nation State in Europe: Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution (its support for the ideas of popular sovereignty, religious tolerance, and legal equality). (H)

    • 3.13. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution (the rise in agricultural productivity). (H, E)

    • 3.14. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution (transportation improvements such as canals and railroads). (H, E)

    • 3.15. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution (the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith). (H, E)

    • 3.16. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution (new sources of energy such as coal and technological innovations such as the steam engine). (H, E)

    • 3.17. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution (the vast increases in productivity and wealth). (H, E)

    • 3.18. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution (population and urban growth). (H, E)

    • 3.19. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution (the growth of a middle class). (H, E)

    • 3.20. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution (problems caused by urbanization and harsh working conditions). (H, E)

    • 3.21. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Describe the rise of unions and socialism, including the ideas and influence of Robert Owen and Karl Marx. (H, E)

    • 3.22. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Describe the rise and significance of antislavery sentiment in Britain, including the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament in 1807, the abolition of slavery within the British Empire in 1833, and the role of various antislavery societies. (H)

    • 3.23. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Explain the impact of various social and political reforms and reform movements in Europe (liberalism). (H, C, E)

    • 3.24. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Explain the impact of various social and political reforms and reform movements in Europe (child labor laws, and social legislation such as old age pensions and health and unemployment insurance). (H, C, E)

    • 3.25. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Explain the impact of various social and political reforms and reform movements in Europe (the expansion of voting rights). (H, C, E)

    • 3.26. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Summarize the causes, course, and consequences of the unification of Italy and Germany (Germany's replacement of France as the dominant power in continental Europe). (H)

    • 3.27. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Summarize the causes, course, and consequences of the unification of Italy and Germany (the role of Cavour and Bismarck in the unification of Italy and Germany). (H)

    • 3.28. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Describe the causes of 19th century European imperialism (the desire for economic gain and resources). (H, E)

    • 3.29. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914: Describe the causes of 19th century European imperialism (the missionary impulse and the search for strategic advantage and national pride). (H, E)

    • 3.30. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th century (the economic and political relationship between India and Britain). (H, E)

    • 3.31. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th century (the building of roads, canals, railroads, and universities). (H, E)

    • 3.32. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th century (the rise of Indian nationalism and the influence and ideas of Gandhi). (H, E)

    • 3.33. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (China's explosive population growth between 1750 and 1850). (H, E)

    • 3.34. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (decline of the Manchu dynasty beginning in the late 18th century). (H, E)

    • 3.35. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (growing Western influence). (H, E)

    • 3.36. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (The Opium War). (H, E)

    • 3.37. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (The Taiping rebellion from 1850 to 1864). (H, E)

    • 3.38. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (The Boxer Rebellion). (H, E)

    • 3.39. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 nationalist revolution). (H, E)

    • 3.40. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (the Meiji Restoration). (H, E)

    • 3.41. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (the abolition of feudalism). (H, E)

    • 3.42. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (the borrowing and adaptation of western technology and industrial growth). (H, E)

    • 3.43. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (Japan's growing role in international affairs). (H, E)

    • 3.44. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (Africa's interaction with imperialism). (H, E)

    • 3.45. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (agricultural changes and new patterns of employment). (H, E)

    • 3.46. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries (the origins of African nationalism). (H, E)

    • 3.47. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century (the wars for independence, including the influence and ideas of Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and the American and French Revolutions). (H, E)

    • 3.48. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century (economic and social stratification). (H, E)

    • 3.49. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century (the role of the church). (H, E)

    • 3.50. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century (the importance of trade). (H, E)

    • 3.51. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century (the growing influence of the United States as demonstrated by the Spanish American War and the building of the Panama Canal). (H, E)

    • 3.52. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century (the Mexican Revolution). (H, E)

    • 3.53. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the relative importance of economic and imperial competition, Balkan nationalism, German militarism and aggression, and the power vacuum in Europe due to the declining power of the Russian, Austrian, and Ottoman Empires in causing World War I. (H, E)

    • 3.54. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I (physical and economic destruction). (H, E)

    • 3.55. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I (the League of Nations and attempts at disarmament). (H, E)

    • 3.56. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I (the collapse of the Romanov dynasty and the subsequent Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War in Russia). (H, E)

    • 3.57. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I (post-war economic and political instability in Germany). (H, E)

    • 3.58. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I (the Armenian genocide in Turkey). (H, E)

    • 3.59. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I (the unprecedented loss of life from prolonged trench warfare). (H, E)

    • 3.60. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II (the end of the Ottoman Empire). (H, E)

    • 3.61. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II (the Balfour Declaration of 1917). (H, E)

    • 3.62. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II (the expulsion of the Greeks from Asia Minor). (H, E)

    • 3.63. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II (the establishment of a secular Turkish state under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk). (H, E)

    • 3.64. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II (the establishment of the Kingdom of Transjordan in the eastern part of the Palestine Mandate by the British). (H, E)

    • 3.65. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II (the growing importance of Middle Eastern oil fields to world politics and the world economy). (H, E)

    • 3.66. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression (restrictive monetary policies). (H, E)

    • 3.67. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression (unemployment and inflation). (H, E)

    • 3.68. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression (political instability). (H, E)

    • 3.69. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression (the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman). (H, E)

    • 3.70. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the rise and goals of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Mussolini, Hitler, Lenin, and Stalin. (H)

    • 3.71. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945 (the establishment of a one-party dictatorship under Lenin). (H, E)

    • 3.72. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945 (the suffering in the Soviet Union caused by Stalin's policies of collectivization of agriculture and breakneck industrialization). (H, E)

    • 3.73. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945 (the destruction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against the population). (H, E)

    • 3.74. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945 (the Soviet Union's emergence as an industrial power). (H, E)

    • 3.75. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s (Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935). (H)

    • 3.76. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s (the Japanese invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking). (H)

    • 3.77. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s (Germany's militarization of the Rhineland, annexation of Austria, and aggression against Czechoslovakia, the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939, and the German attack on Poland). (H)

    • 3.78. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Summarize the key battles and events of World War II (The German conquest of continental Europe; The Battle of Britain; Pearl Harbor; The Bataan Death March; El Alamein; Midway ; Stalingrad; D-Day; Battle of the Bulge; Iwo Jima; Okinawa). (H)

    • 3.79. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Identify the goals, leadership, and post-war plans of the allied leaders (Winston Churchill; Franklin D. Roosevelt; Joseph Stalin). (H)

    • 3.80. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, including its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews. (H)

    • 3.81. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and its short and long-term effects. (H)

    • 3.82. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Explain the consequences of World War II (physical and economic destruction). (H, E)

    • 3.83. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Explain the consequences of World War II (the enormous loss of life, including millions of civilians through the bombing of population centers and the slaughter of political opponents and ethnic minorities). (H, E)

    • 3.84. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Explain the consequences of World War II (support in Europe for political reform and decolonization). (H, E)

    • 3.85. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Explain the consequences of World War II (the emergence of the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the world's two superpowers). (H, E)

    • 3.86. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Great Wars, 1914-1945: Describe reasons for the establishment of the United Nations in 1945 and summarize the main ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (H)

    • 3.87. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Summarize the factors that contributed to the Cold War, including Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe and the differences between democracy and communism. (H, C)

    • 3.88. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the policy of containment, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO, as America's response to Soviet expansionist policies. (H)

    • 3.89. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (the Korean War). (H)

    • 3.90. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (the emergence of the People's Republic of China as a major power). (H)

    • 3.91. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (the 1956 uprising in Hungary). (H)

    • 3.92. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (Soviet-U.S. competition in the Middle East). (H)

    • 3.93. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (conflicts involving Cuba and Berlin). (H)

    • 3.94. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (the Vietnam War). (H)

    • 3.95. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (the 'Prague Spring'). (H)

    • 3.96. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (arms control agreements (including the ABM and SALT treaties) and detente under Nixon). (H)

    • 3.97. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era (the Soviet war in Afghanistan). (H)

    • 3.98. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the triumph of the Communist Revolution in China in 1949. (H)

    • 3.99. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution (Communist Party attempts to eliminate internal opposition). (H, E)

    • 3.100. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution (the Great Leap Forward and its consequences (famine)). (H, E)

    • 3.101. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution (the Cultural Revolution and its consequences (the terror of the Red Guards and the expansion of labor camps)). (H, E)

    • 3.102. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution (the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstration). (H, E)

    • 3.103. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution (China's economic modernization and its growing involvement in world trade). (H, E)

    • 3.104. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the global surge in economic productivity during the Cold War and describe its consequences (the rise in living standards; the economic recovery and development of Germany and Japan). (H, E)

    • 3.105. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the various factors that contributed to post-World War II economic and population growth (the long post-war peace between democratic nations). (H, E)

    • 3.106. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the various factors that contributed to post-World War II economic and population growth (the policies of international economic organizations). (H, E)

    • 3.107. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the various factors that contributed to post-World War II economic and population growth (scientific, technological, and medical advances). (H, E)

    • 3.108. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research (Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity). (H)

    • 3.109. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research (Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and nuclear energy). (H)

    • 3.110. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research (Wernher von Braun and space exploration). (H)

    • 3.111. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research (Jonas Salk and the polio vaccine). (H)

    • 3.112. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research (James Watson, Francis Crick, the discovery of DNA, and the Human Genome Project). (H)

    • 3.113. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Describe the development and goals of nationalist movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, including the ideas and importance of nationalist leaders (Fidel Castro (Cuba); Patrice Lumumba (Congo); Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam); Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt); Jawaharlal Nehru (India); Juan Peron (Argentina)). (H)

    • 3.114. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world (the growth of Zionism, and 19th and early 20th century immigration by Eastern European Jews to Palestine). (H)

    • 3.115. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world (anti-Semitism and the Holocaust). (H)

    • 3.116. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world (the UN vote in 1947 to partition the western part of the Palestine Mandate into two independent countries). (H)

    • 3.117. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world (the rejection of surrounding Arab countries of the UN decision and the invasion of Israel by Arab countries). (H)

    • 3.118. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world (the 1967 and 1973 wars between Israel and neighboring Arab states). (H)

    • 3.119. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      Cold War Era, 1945-1989: Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world (the attempts to secure peace between Palestinians and Israelis). (H)

    • 3.120. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe (the weaknesses of the Soviet command economy). (H, E)

    • 3.121. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe (the burdens of Soviet military commitments). (H, E)

    • 3.122. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe (the anticommunist policies of President Reagan). (H, E)

    • 3.123. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe (the resistance to communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe). (H, E)

    • 3.124. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the role of various leaders in transforming the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Mikhail Gorbachev; Vaclav Havel; Andrei Sakharov; Aleksander Solzhenitsyn; Lech Walesa). (H, C)

    • 3.125. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Union's breakup (the development of market economies). (H, E)

    • 3.126. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Union's breakup (political and social instability). (H, E)

    • 3.127. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Union's breakup ( the danger of the spread of nuclear technology and other technologies of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist organizations). (H, E)

    • 3.128. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Identify the sources of ethnic and religious conflicts in the following nations and regions (Northern Ireland; the Balkans; Sudan and Rwanda; Sri Lanka; Kashmir). (H)

    • 3.129. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the reasons for the fall of apartheid in South Africa, including the influence and ideas of Nelson Mandela. (H)

    • 3.130. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the social and economic effects of the spread of AIDS in Asian and African countries. (H)

    • 3.131. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain how the computer revolution contributed to economic growth and advances in science, medicine, and communication. (H)

    • 3.132. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades (the weakness and fragility of the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others). (H, E)

    • 3.133. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades (the Iranian Revolution of 1978-1979). (H, E)

    • 3.134. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades (defeat of the Soviet Union by the Mujahideen in Afghanistan). (H, E)

    • 3.135. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades (the origins of the Persian Gulf War and the post-war actions of Saddam Hussein). (H, E)

    • 3.136. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades (the financial support of radical and terrorist organizations by the Saudis). (H, E)

    • 3.137. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades (the increase in terrorist attacks against Israel and the United States). (H, E)

    • 3.138. Learning Standard / Outcome: World History II Learning Standards

      The Contemporary World, 1989-2001: Describe America's response to and the wider consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. (H)

  • MA.4. Domain / General Standard: U.S. History I

    The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763-1877: Students examine the historical and intellectual origins of the United States during the Revolutionary and Constitutional eras. They learn about the important political and economic factors that contributed to the outbreak of the Revolution as well as the consequences of the Revolution, including the writing and key ideas of the U.S. Constitution.

    • 4.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the political and economic factors that contributed to the American Revolution (the impact on the colonies of the French and Indian War, including how the war led to an overhaul of British imperial policy from 1763 to 1775). (H, C)

    • 4.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the political and economic factors that contributed to the American Revolution (how freedom from European feudalism and aristocracy and the widespread ownership of property fostered individualism and contributed to the Revolution). (H, C)

    • 4.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American Revolution and the formation and framework of the American government (the legacy of ancient Greece and Rome). (H, C)

    • 4.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American Revolution and the formation and framework of the American government (the political theories of such European philosophers as Locke and Montesquieu). (H, C)

    • 4.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence and the political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. (H, C)

    • 4.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Analyze how Americans resisted British policies before 1775 and analyze the reasons for the American victory and the British defeat during the Revolutionary war. (H)

    • 4.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the role of Massachusetts in the revolution, including important events that took place in Massachusetts and important leaders from Massachusetts (the Boston Massacre; the Boston Tea Party; the Battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill; Sam Adams, John Adams, and John Hancock). (H)

    • 4.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781, including why its drafters created a weak central government; analyze the shortcomings of the national government under the Articles; and describe the crucial events (e.g., Shays's rebellion) leading to the Constitutional Convention. (H, C)

    • 4.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention. Describe the major debates that occurred at the Convention and the 'Great Compromise' that was reached (Major Debates: the distribution of political power; the rights of individuals; the rights of states; slavery); (Founders: Benjamin Franklin; Alexander Hamilton; James Madison; George Washington). (H, C)

    • 4.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Describe the debate over the ratification of the Constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists and explain the key ideas contained in the Federalist Papers on federalism, factions, checks and balances, and the importance of an independent judiciary. (H, C)

    • 4.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the reasons for the passage of the Bill of Rights (the influence of the British concept of limited government). (H, C)

    • 4.12. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: Explain the reasons for the passage of the Bill of Rights (the particular ways in which the Bill of Rights protects basic freedoms, restricts government power, and ensures rights to persons accused of crimes). (H, C)

    • 4.13. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763-1789: On a map of North America, identify the first 13 states to ratify the Constitution. (H, G)

    • 4.14. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Describe the purpose and functions of government. (H, C)

    • 4.15. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain and provide examples of different forms of government, including democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, and autocracy. (H, C)

    • 4.16. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain why the United States government is classified as a democratic government. (H, C)

    • 4.17. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain the characteristics of American democracy, including the concepts of popular sovereignty and constitutional government, which includes representative institutions, federalism, separation of powers, shared powers, checks and balances, and individual rights. (H, C)

    • 4.18. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain the varying roles and responsibilities of federal, state, and local governments in the United States. (H, C)

    • 4.19. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Describe the evolution of the role of the federal government, including public services, taxation, economic policy, foreign policy, and common defense. (H, C)

    • 4.20. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain the major components of Massachusetts' state government, including the roles and functions of the governor, state legislature, and other constitutional officers. (H, C)

    • 4.21. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain the major components of local government in Massachusetts, including the roles and functions of school committees, town meetings, boards of selectmen, mayors, and city councils. (H, C)

    • 4.22. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain the rights and the responsibilities of citizenship and describe how a democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process through elections, political parties, and interest groups. (H, C)

    • 4.23. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Explain the evolution and function of political parties, including their role in federal, state, and local elections. (H, C)

    • 4.24. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Formation and Framework of American Democracy: Describe how decisions are made in a democracy, including the role of legislatures, courts, executives, and the public. (H, C)

    • 4.25. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington (1789-1797), John Adams (1797-1801), and Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) (the origins of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties in the 1790s). (H, C)

    • 4.26. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington (1789-1797), John Adams (1797-1801), and Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) (the conflicting ideas of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton). (H, C)

    • 4.27. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington (1789-1797), John Adams (1797-1801), and Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) (the Alien and Sedition Acts). (H, C)

    • 4.28. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington (1789-1797), John Adams (1797-1801), and Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) (the Louisiana Purchase). (H, C)

    • 4.29. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Analyze the rising levels of political participation and the expansion of suffrage in antebellum America. (C, H)

    • 4.30. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the election of 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and Jackson's actions as President (the spoils system; Jackson's veto of the National Bank; Jackson's policy of Indian Removal). (H)

    • 4.31. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Trace the influence and ideas of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall and the importance of the doctrine of judicial review as manifested in Marbury v. Madison (1803). (H, C)

    • 4.32. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the War of 1812). (H, E, G)

    • 4.33. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the purchase of Florida in 1819). (H, E, G)

    • 4.34. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the 1823 Monroe Doctrine). (H, E, G)

    • 4.35. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the Cherokees' Trail of Tears). (H, E, G)

    • 4.36. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the annexation of Texas in 1845). (H, E, G)

    • 4.37. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion). (H, E, G)

    • 4.38. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846). (H, E, G)

    • 4.39. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War). (H, E, G)

    • 4.40. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the search for gold in California). (H, E, G)

    • 4.41. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, 1790-1860: Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails (the Gadsden Purchase of 1854). (H, E, G)

    • 4.42. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860: Explain the importance of the Transportation Revolution of the 19th century (the building of canals, roads, bridges, turnpikes, steamboats, and railroads), including the stimulus it provided to the growth of a market economy. (H, E)

    • 4.43. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860: Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America (the technological improvements and inventions that contributed to industrial growth). (H, E)

    • 4.44. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860: Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America (the causes and impact of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to America in the 1840s and 1850s). (H, E)

    • 4.45. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860: Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America (the rise of a business class of merchants and manufacturers). (H, E)

    • 4.46. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860: Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America (the roles of women in New England textile factories). (H, E)

    • 4.47. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860: Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. (H)

    • 4.48. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Summarize the growth of the American education system and Horace Mann's campaign for free compulsory public education. (H)

    • 4.49. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism (Frederick Douglass; William Lloyd Garrison; Sojourner Truth; Harriet Tubman; Theodore Weld). (H)

    • 4.50. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America (the increase in the number of Protestant denominations). (H)

    • 4.51. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America (the Second Great Awakening). (H)

    • 4.52. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America (the influence of these trends on the reaction of Protestants to the growth of Catholic immigration). (H)

    • 4.53. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Analyze the goals and effect of the antebellum women's suffrage movement (the 1848 Seneca Falls convention; Susan B. Anthony; Margaret Fuller; Lucretia Mott; Elizabeth Cady Stanton). (H)

    • 4.54. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860: Analyze the emergence of the Transcendentalist movement through the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. (H)

    • 4.55. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the early 19th century. (H)

    • 4.56. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the Missouri Compromise (1820)). (H)

    • 4.57. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the South Carolina Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)). (H)

    • 4.58. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the Wilmot Proviso (1846)). (H)

    • 4.59. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the Compromise of 1850). (H)

    • 4.60. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851-1852)). (H)

    • 4.61. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)). (H)

    • 4.62. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the Dred Scott Supreme Court case (1857)). (H)

    • 4.63. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858)). (H)

    • 4.64. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry (1859)). (H)

    • 4.65. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War (the election of Abraham Lincoln (1860)). (H)

    • 4.66. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: On a map of North America, identify Union and Confederate States at the outbreak of the war. (H, G)

    • 4.67. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Analyze Abraham Lincoln's presidency, the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), his views on slavery, and the political obstacles he encountered. (H, C)

    • 4.68. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Analyze the roles and policies of various Civil War leaders and describe the important Civil War battles and events (Leaders: Jefferson Davis; Ulysses S. Grant; Robert E. Lee); (Battles: the Massachusetts 54th Regiment and the Battle at Fort Wagner; Antietam; Vicksburg; Gettysburg). (H)

    • 4.69. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Provide examples of the various effects of the Civil War (physical and economic destruction). (H, E)

    • 4.70. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Provide examples of the various effects of the Civil War (the increased role of the federal government). (H, E)

    • 4.71. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Provide examples of the various effects of the Civil War (the greatest loss of life on a per capita basis of any U.S. war before or since). (H, E)

    • 4.72. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction). (H, C)

    • 4.73. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the impeachment of President Johnson). (H, C)

    • 4.74. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments). (H, C)

    • 4.75. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the opposition of Southern whites to Reconstruction). (H, C)

    • 4.76. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the accomplishments and failures of Radical Reconstruction). (H, C)

    • 4.77. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the presidential election of 1876 and the end of Reconstruction). (H, C)

    • 4.78. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the rise of Jim Crow laws). (H, C)

    • 4.79. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. History I Learning Standards

      The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877: Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction (the Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)). (H, C)

  • MA.5. Domain / General Standard: U.S. History II

    Reconstruction to the Present, 1877-2001: Students will analyze the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution and America's growing role in diplomatic relations. Students will study the goals and accomplishments of the Progressive movement and the New Deal. Students will also learn about the various factors that led to America's entry into World War II as well as the consequences of World War II on American life.

    • 5.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the various causes of the Industrial Revolution (the economic impetus provided by the Civil War). (H, E)

    • 5.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the various causes of the Industrial Revolution (important technological and scientific advances). (H, E)

    • 5.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the various causes of the Industrial Revolution (the role of business leaders, entrepreneurs, and inventors such as Alexander Graham Bell, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Cornelius Vanderbilt). (H, E)

    • 5.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the important consequences of the Industrial Revolution (the growth of big business; environmental impact; the expansion of cities). (H, E)

    • 5.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Describe the causes of the immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans, Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese to America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and describe the major roles of these immigrants in the industrialization of America. (H)

    • 5.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes of the continuing westward expansion of the American people after the Civil War and the impact of this migration on the Indians. (H)

    • 5.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical political parties during the Industrial era (the Knights of Labor). (H, E)

    • 5.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical political parties during the Industrial era (the American Federation of Labor headed by Samuel Gompers). (H, E)

    • 5.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical political parties during the Industrial era (the Populist Party). (H, E)

    • 5.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical political parties during the Industrial era (the Socialist Party headed by Eugene Debs). (H, E)

    • 5.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (the influence of the ideas associated with Social Darwinism). (H, E)

    • 5.12. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (the purchase of Alaska from Russia). (H, E)

    • 5.13. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (America's growing influence in Hawaii leading to annexation). (H, E)

    • 5.14. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (the Spanish-American War). (H, E)

    • 5.15. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (U.S. expansion into Asia under the Open Door policy). (H, E)

    • 5.16. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (President Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine). (H, E)

    • 5.17. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (America's role in the building of the Panama Canal). (H, E)

    • 5.18. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (President Taft's Dollar Diplomacy). (H, E)

    • 5.19. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (President Wilson's intervention in Mexico). (H, E)

    • 5.20. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I (American entry into World War I). (H, E)

    • 5.21. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, 1870-1920: Explain the course and significance of President Wilson's wartime diplomacy, including his Fourteen Points, the League of Nations, and the failure of the Versailles treaty. (H)

    • 5.22. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Analyze the origins of Progressivism and important Progressive leaders, and summarize the major accomplishments of Progressivism (People: Jane Addams; William Jennings Bryan; John Dewey; Robert La Follette; President Theodore Roosevelt; Upton Sinclair; President William H. Taft; Ida Tarbell; President Woodrow Wilson); (Policies: bans against child labor; the initiative referendum and its recall; the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890); the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906); the Meat Packing Act (1906); the Federal Reserve Act (1913); the Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914); the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920). (H, E)

    • 5.23. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and women to gain basic civil rights (Carrie Chapman Catt; W.E.B. Du Bois; Marcus Garvey; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Alice Paul; Booker T. Washington). (H)

    • 5.24. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s (the Boston police strike in 1919). (H)

    • 5.25. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s (the Red Scare and Sacco and Vanzetti). (H)

    • 5.26. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s (racial and ethnic tensions). (H)

    • 5.27. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s (the Scopes Trial and the debate over Darwin's On the Origins of Species). (H)

    • 5.28. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s (Prohibition). (H)

    • 5.29. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great Depression (restrictive monetary policies). (H, E)

    • 5.30. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great Depression (unemployment). (H, E)

    • 5.31. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great Depression (support for political and economic reform). (H, E)

    • 5.32. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great Depression (the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, and the critique of centralized economic planning and management by Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman). (H, E)

    • 5.33. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Analyze the important policies, institutions, and personalities of the New Deal era (People: President Herbert Hoover; President Franklin D. Roosevelt; Eleanor Roosevelt; Huey Long; Charles Coughlin); (Policies: the establishment of: the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; the Securities and Exchange Commission; the Tennessee Valley Authority; the Social Security Act, the National Labor Relations Act; the Works Progress Administration; the Fair Labor Standards Act); (Institutions: the American Federation of Labor; the Congress of Industrial Organizations; the American Communist Party). (H)

    • 5.34. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Explain how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected American society (the increased importance of the federal government in establishing economic and social policies). (H)

    • 5.35. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal, 1900-1940: Explain how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected American society (the emergence of a 'New Deal coalition' consisting of African Americans, blue-collar workers, poor farmers, Jews, and Catholics). (H)

    • 5.36. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Explain the strength of American isolationism after World War I and analyze its impact on U.S.

    • 5.37. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) (Fascism in Germany and Italy). (H)

    • 5.38. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) (German rearmament and militarization of the Rhineland). (H)

    • 5.39. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) (Germany's seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia and Germany's invasion of Poland). (H)

    • 5.40. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) (Japan's invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking). (H)

    • 5.41. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) (Pearl Harbor, Midway, D-Day, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, and the Yalta and Potsdam conferences). (H)

    • 5.42. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and their short and long-term effects. (H)

    • 5.43. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Explain important domestic events that took place during the war (how war-inspired economic growth ended the Great Depression). (H, E)

    • 5.44. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Explain important domestic events that took place during the war (A. Philip Randolph and the efforts to eliminate employment discrimination). (H, E)

    • 5.45. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Explain important domestic events that took place during the war (the entry of large numbers of women into the workforce). (H, E)

    • 5.46. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      World War II, 1939-1945: Explain important domestic events that took place during the war (the internment of West Coast Japanese-Americans in the U.S. and Canada). (H, E)

    • 5.47. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Cold War Abroad, 1945-1989: Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War and describe the policy of containment as America's response to Soviet expansionist policies (the differences between the Soviet and American political and economic systems). (H)

    • 5.48. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Cold War Abroad, 1945-1989: Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War and describe the policy of containment as America's response to Soviet expansionist policies (Soviet aggression in Eastern Europe). (H)

    • 5.49. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Cold War Abroad, 1945-1989: Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War and describe the policy of containment as America's response to Soviet expansionist policies (the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO). (H)

    • 5.50. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Cold War Abroad, 1945-1989: Analyze the sources and, with a map of the world, locate the areas of Cold War conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (the Korean War; Germany; China; the Middle East; the arms race; Latin America; Africa; the Vietnam War). (H, G)

    • 5.51. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Cold War Abroad, 1945-1989: Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the Vietnam War and summarize the diplomatic and military policies of Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H)

    • 5.52. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      The Cold War Abroad, 1945-1989: Analyze how the failure of communist economic policies as well as U.S.-sponsored resistance to Soviet military and diplomatic initiatives contributed to ending the Cold War. (H, E)

    • 5.53. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War trends (economic growth and declining poverty). (H, E)

    • 5.54. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War trends (the baby boom). (H, E)

    • 5.55. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War trends (the growth of suburbs and home-ownership). (H, E)

    • 5.56. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War trends (the increase in education levels). (H, E)

    • 5.57. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War trends (the development of mass media and consumerism). (H, E)

    • 5.58. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the following domestic policies of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower (Truman's Fair Deal; the Taft-Hartley Act (1947); Eisenhower's response to the Soviet's launching of Sputnik; Eisenhower's civil rights record). (H)

    • 5.59. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the roots of domestic anticommunism as well as the origins and consequences of McCarthyism (People: Whittaker Chambers; Alger Hiss; Edgar Hoover; Senator Joseph McCarthy; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg); (Institutions: the American Communist Party (including its close relationship to the Soviet Union); the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)). (H)

    • 5.60. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the origins, goals, and key events of the Civil Rights movement (People: Robert Kennedy; Martin Luther King, Jr.; Thurgood Marshall; Rosa Parks; Malcolm X); (Institution: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)); (Events: Brown v. Board of Education (1954); the 1955-1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott; the 1957-1958 Little Rock School Crisis; the sit-ins and freedom rides of the early 1960s; the 1963 civil rights protest in Birmingham; the 1963 March on Washington; the 1965 civil rights protest in Selma; the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.). (H)

    • 5.61. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Describe the accomplishments of the civil rights movement (the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act). (H, E)

    • 5.62. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Describe the accomplishments of the civil rights movement (the growth of the African American middle class, increased political power, and declining rates of African American poverty). (H, E)

    • 5.63. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem). (H)

    • 5.64. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (the birth control pill). (H)

    • 5.65. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (the increasing number of working women). (H)

    • 5.66. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (the formation of the National Organization of Women in 1967). (H)

    • 5.67. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (the debate over the Equal Rights Amendment). (H)

    • 5.68. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (the 1973 Supreme Court case, Roe v. Wade). (H)

    • 5.69. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (the space exploration program). (H)

    • 5.70. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (the assassination of President Kennedy). (H)

    • 5.71. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (Johnson's Great Society programs). (H)

    • 5.72. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (Nixon's appeal to 'the silent majority'). (H)

    • 5.73. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (the anti-war and counter-cultural movements). (H)

    • 5.74. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970). (H)

    • 5.75. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945-1980: Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon (the Watergate scandal (including the Supreme Court case, U.S. v. Nixon)). (H)

    • 5.76. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the presidency of Ronald Reagan (tax rate cuts). (H, E)

    • 5.77. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the presidency of Ronald Reagan (anticommunist foreign and defense policies). (H, E)

    • 5.78. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the presidency of Ronald Reagan (Supreme Court appointments). (H, E)

    • 5.79. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the presidency of Ronald Reagan (the revitalization of the conservative movement during Reagan's tenure as President). (H, E)

    • 5.80. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the presidency of Ronald Reagan (the replacement of striking air traffic controllers with non-union personnel). (H, E)

    • 5.81. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th century (the computer and technological revolution of the 1980s and 1990s). (H, E)

    • 5.82. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th century (scientific and medical discoveries). (H, E)

    • 5.83. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th century (major immigration and demographic changes such as the rise in Asian and Hispanic immigration (both legal and illegal)). (H, E)

    • 5.84. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th century (the weakening of the nuclear family and the rise in divorce rates). (H, E)

    • 5.85. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency (the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993). (H, E)

    • 5.86. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency (President Clinton's welfare reform legislation and expansion of the earned income tax credit). (H, E)

    • 5.87. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency (the first balanced budget in more than 25 years). (H, E)

    • 5.88. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency (the election in 1994 of the first Republican majority in both the House and Senate in 40 years). (H, E)

    • 5.89. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency (tax credits for higher education). (H, E)

    • 5.90. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency (the causes and consequences of the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998). (H, E)

    • 5.91. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Explain the importance of the 2000 presidential election (the Supreme Court case, Bush v. Gore; the growing influence of the Republican Party in the South and the consolidation of the Democratic Party's hold on the coasts). (H, C)

    • 5.92. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the course and consequences of America's recent diplomatic initiatives (the invasion of Panama and the Persian Gulf War). (H, C)

    • 5.93. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the course and consequences of America's recent diplomatic initiatives (American intervention in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Kosovo). (H, C)

    • 5.94. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the course and consequences of America's recent diplomatic initiatives (the attempts to negotiate a settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict). (H, C)

    • 5.95. Learning Standard / Outcome: U.S. II Learning Standards

      Contemporary America, 1980-2001: Analyze the course and consequences of America's recent diplomatic initiatives (America's response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and on the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.). (H, C)

  • MA.6. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    Scarcity and Economic Reasoning: Students will understand that productive resources are limited, therefore, people cannot have all the goods and services they want. As a result, they must choose some things and give up others.

    • 6.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Define each of the productive resources (natural, human, capital) and explain why they are necessary for the production of goods and services.

    • 6.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Explain how consumers and producers confront the condition of scarcity, by making choices that involve opportunity costs and tradeoffs.

    • 6.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Identify and explain the broad goals of economic policy such as freedom, efficiency, equity, security, growth, price stability, and full employment.

    • 6.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Describe how people respond predictably to positive and negative incentives.

    • 6.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Predict how interest rates act as an incentive for savers and borrowers.

    • 6.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Recognize that voluntary exchange occurs when all participating parties expect to gain.

    • 6.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Compare and contrast how the various economic systems (traditional, market, command, mixed) try to answer the questions: What to produce? How to produce it? And for whom to produce?

    • 6.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Describe how clearly defined and enforced property rights are essential to a market economy.

    • 6.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Use a production possibilities curve to explain the concepts of choice, scarcity, opportunity cost, tradeoffs, unemployment, productivity, and growth.

    • 6.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning

      Formulate a savings or financial investment plan for a future goal (e.g., college or retirement).

  • MA.7. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    Supply and Demand: Students will understand the role that supply and demand, prices, and profits play in determining production and distribution in a market economy.

    • 7.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Define supply and demand.

    • 7.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Describe the role of buyers and sellers in determining the equilibrium price.

    • 7.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Describe how prices send signals to buyers and sellers.

    • 7.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Recognize that consumers ultimately determine what is produced in a market economy (consumer sovereignty).

    • 7.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Explain the function of profit in a market economy as an incentive for entrepreneurs to accept the risks of business failure.

    • 7.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Demonstrate how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity in the product, resource, and financial markets.

    • 7.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Identify factors that cause changes in market supply and demand.

    • 7.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Demonstrate how changes in supply and demand influence equilibrium price and quantity in the product, resource, and financial markets.

    • 7.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Demonstrate how government wages and price controls, such as rent controls and minimum wage laws, create shortages and surpluses.

    • 7.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Use concepts of price elasticity of demand and supply to explain and predict changes in quantity as price changes.

    • 7.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: Supply and Demand

      Explain how financial markets, such as the stock market, channel funds from savers to investors.

  • MA.8. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    Market Structures: Students will understand the organization and role of business firms and analyze the various types of market structures in the United States economy.

    • 8.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Compare and contrast the following forms of business organization: sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation.

    • 8.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Identify the three basic ways that firms finance operations (retained earnings, stock issues, and borrowing), and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.

    • 8.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Recognize the role of economic institutions, such as labor unions and nonprofit organizations in market economies.

    • 8.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Identify the basic characteristics of monopoly, oligopoly, and pure competition.

    • 8.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Explain how competition among many sellers lowers costs and prices and encourages producers to produce more.

    • 8.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Demonstrate how firms with market power can determine price and output through marginal analysis.

    • 8.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Explain ways that firms engage in price and nonprime competition.

    • 8.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Illustrate how investment in research and development, equipment and technology, and training of workers increases productivity.

    • 8.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Describe how the earnings of workers are determined by the market value of the product produced and workers' productivity.

    • 8.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Market Structures

      Identify skills individuals need to be successful in the workplace.

  • MA.9. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    The Role of Government: The student will understand the roles of government in a market economy are the provision of public goods and services, redistribution of income, protection of property rights, and resolution of market failures.

    • 9.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Explain how government responds to perceived social needs by providing public goods and services.

    • 9.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Describe major revenue and expenditure categories and their respective proportions of local, state, and federal budgets.

    • 9.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Identify laws and regulations adopted in the United States to promote competition among firms.

    • 9.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Describe the characteristics of natural monopolies and the purposes of government regulation of these monopolies, such as utilities.

    • 9.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Define progressive, proportional, and regressive taxation.

    • 9.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Describe how the costs of government policies may exceed their benefits because social or political goals other than economic efficiency are being pursued.

    • 9.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Predict how changes in federal spending and taxation would affect budget deficits and surpluses and the national debt.

    • 9.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Define and explain fiscal and monetary policy.

    • 9.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Analyze how the government uses taxing and spending decisions (fiscal policy) to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.

    • 9.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Role of Government

      Analyze how the Federal Reserve uses monetary tools to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.

  • MA.10. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    National Economic Performance: Students will understand the means by which economic performance is measured.

    • 10.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: National Economic Performance

      Define aggregate supply and demand, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, unemployment, and inflation.

    • 10.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: National Economic Performance

      Explain how Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, unemployment, and inflation are calculated.

    • 10.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: National Economic Performance

      Analyze the impact of events in United States history, such as wars and technological developments, on business cycles.

    • 10.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: National Economic Performance

      Identify the different causes of inflation, and explain who gains and loses because of inflation.

    • 10.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: National Economic Performance

      Recognize that a country's overall level of income, employment, and prices are determined by the individual spending and production decisions of households, firms, and government.

    • 10.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: National Economic Performance

      Illustrate and explain how the relationship between aggregate supply and aggregate demand is an important determinant of the levels of unemployment and inflation in an economy.

  • MA.11. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    Money and the Role of Financial Institutions: Students will understand the role of money and financial institutions in a market economy.

    • 11.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Explain the basic functions of money (e.g., medium of exchange, store of value, unit of account).

    • 11.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Identify the composition of the money supply of the United States.

    • 11.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Explain the role of banks and other financial institutions in the economy of the United States.

    • 11.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Describe the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System.

    • 11.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Compare and contrast credit, savings, and investment services available to the consumer from financial institutions.

    • 11.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Research and monitor financial investments such as stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.

    • 11.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions

      Formulate a credit plan for purchasing a major item such as a car or home, comparing different interest rates.

  • MA.12. Domain / General Standard: Economics

    Trade: Students will understand why individuals, businesses, and governments trade goods and services and how trade affects the economies of the world.

    • 12.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Explain the benefits of trade among individuals, regions, and countries.

    • 12.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Define and distinguish between absolute and comparative advantage and explain how most trade occurs because of a comparative advantage in the production of a particular good or service.

    • 12.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Trade barriers, such as quotas and tariffs.

    • 12.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Explain why countries sometimes erect barriers to trade.

    • 12.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Explain the difference between balance of trade and balance of payments.

    • 12.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Compare and contrast labor productivity trends in the United States and other developed countries.

    • 12.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Explain how changes in exchange rates impact the purchasing power of people in the United States and other countries.

    • 12.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Trade

      Evaluate the arguments for and against free trade.

  • MA.13. Domain / General Standard: American Government

    The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government: Students will identify, define, compare, and contrast ideas regarding the nature of government, politics, and civic life, and explain how these ideas have influenced contemporary political and legal systems. They will also explain the importance of government, politics, and civic engagement in a democratic republic, and demonstrate how citizens participate in civic and political life in their own communities.

    • 13.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Distinguish among civic, political, and private life.

    • 13.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Define the terms citizenship, politics, and government, and give examples of how political solutions to public policy problems are generated through interactions of citizens and civil associations with their government.

    • 13.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Describe the purposes and functions of government.

    • 13.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Define and provide examples of different forms of government, including direct democracy, representative democracy, republic, monarchy, oligarchy, and autocracy.

    • 13.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Explain how the rule of law, embodied in a constitution, limits government to protect the rights of individuals.

    • 13.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Explain how a constitutional democracy provides majority rule with equal protection for the rights of individuals, including those in the minority, through limited government and the rule of law.

    • 13.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Distinguish limited from unlimited government, and provide examples of each type of government.

    • 13.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Explain how civil society contributes to the maintenance of limited government in a representative democracy or democratic republic such as the United States.

    • 13.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Examine fundamental documents in the American political tradition to identify key ideas regarding limited government and individual rights.

    • 13.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Nature of Citizenship, Politics, and Government

      Explain the part of Article IV, Section 4, of the United States Constitution, which says, 'The United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a Republican form of Government?.'

  • MA.14. Domain / General Standard: American Government

    Foundations of Government in the United States: Students will identify and define ideas at the core of government and politics in the United States, interpret founding-era documents and events associated with the core ideas, and explain how commitment to these foundational ideas constitutes a common American history and civic identity. They will also analyze issues about the meaning and application of these core ideas to government, politics, and civic life, and demonstrate how citizens use these foundational ideas in civic and political life.

    • 14.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Trace the colonial, revolutionary, and founding-era experiences and events that led to the writing, ratification, and implementation of the United States Constitution (1787) and Bill of Rights (1791).

    • 14.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Analyze and interpret central ideas on government, individual rights, and the common good in founding documents of the United States.

    • 14.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Identify and explain elements of the social contract and natural rights theories in United States founding-era documents.

    • 14.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Define and provide examples of foundational ideas of American government, including popular sovereignty, constitutionalism, republicanism, federalism, and individual rights, which are embedded in founding-era documents.

    • 14.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Explain how a shared American civic identity is embodied in founding-era documents and in core documents of subsequent periods of United States history.

    • 14.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Define and provide examples of fundamental principles and values of American political and civic life, including liberty, the common good, justice, equality, tolerance, law and order, rights of individuals, diversity, civic unity, patriotism, constitutionalism, popular sovereignty, and representative democracy.

    • 14.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Identify and explain historical and contemporary efforts to narrow discrepancies between foundational ideas and values of American democracy and realities of American political and civic life.

    • 14.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues concerning foundational ideas or values in tension or conflict.

    • 14.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Compare and contrast ideas on government of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists during their debates on ratification of the U.S. Constitution (1787-1788).

    • 14.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Foundations of Government in the United States

      Analyze and explain ideas about liberty, equality, and justice in American society using documents such as in Reverend Martin Luther King's 'I Have A Dream' speech and Letter from Birmingham City Jail (1963), and compare King's ideas to those in such founding-era documents as the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), the Declaration of Independence (1776), Massachusetts Declaration of Rights (1780), and the Federalist Papers (1788)

  • MA.15. Domain / General Standard: American Government

    Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America: Students will explain how purposes, principles, and institutions of government for the American people are established in the United States Constitution and reflected in the Massachusetts Constitution. They will also describe the structures and functions of American constitutional government at national, state, and local levels, and practice skills of citizenship in relationship to their constitutional government.

    • 15.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederate, and federal.

    • 15.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Identify and describe provisions of the United States Constitution and the Massachusetts Constitution that define and distribute powers and authority of the federal or state government.

    • 15.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Explain the constitutional principles of federalism, separation of powers among three branches of government, the system of checks and balances, republican government or representative democracy, and popular sovereignty. Provide examples of these principles in the governments of the United States and the state of Massachusetts.

    • 15.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Explain the functions of the courts of law in the governments of the United States and the state of Massachusetts with emphasis on the principles of judicial review and an independent judiciary.

    • 15.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Distinguish among the enumerated and implied powers in the United States Constitution and the Massachusetts Constitution.

    • 15.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Explain the functions of departments or agencies of the executive branch in the governments of the United States and the state of Massachusetts.

    • 15.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Trace the evolution of political parties in the American governmental system, and analyze their functions in elections and government at national and state levels of the federal system.

    • 15.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Explain the legal, fiscal, and operational relationships between state and local governments in Massachusetts.

    • 15.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Explain the formal process of how a bill becomes a law and define the terms initiative and referendum.

    • 15.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Explain the difference between a town and a city form of government in Massachusetts, including the difference between a representative and an open-town meeting.

    • 15.11. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Compare core documents associated with the protection of individual rights, including the Bill of Rights, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution.

    • 15.12. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Use a variety of sources, including newspapers and internet web sites, to identify current state and local legislative issues and examine the influence on the legislative process of political parties, interest groups, grass roots organizations, lobbyists, public opinion, the news media, and individual voters.

    • 15.13. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Analyze and evaluate decisions by the United States Supreme Court about the constitutional principles of separation of powers and checks and balances in such landmark cases as Marbury v. Madison (1803), Baker v. Carr (1962), United States v. Nixon (1974), City of Boerne, Texas v. Flores (1997), and Clinton v. City of New York (1998).

    • 15.14. Learning Standard / Outcome: Purposes, Principles, and Institutions of Government in the United States of America

      Analyze and evaluate decisions by the United States Supreme Court about the constitutional principle of federalism in cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Texas v. White (1869), Alden v. Maine (1999).

  • MA.16. Domain / General Standard: American Government

    The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs: Students will analyze the interactions between the United States and other nations and evaluate the role of the United States in world affairs.

    • 16.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Describe how the world is divided politically, and give examples of the ways nation states interact, including trade, tourism, diplomacy, treaties and agreements, and military action.

    • 16.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Analyze reasons for conflict among nation states, such as competition for resources and territory, differences in system of government, and religious or ethnic conflicts.

    • 16.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Identify and explain powers that the United States Constitution gives to the President and Congress in the area of foreign affairs

    • 16.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Describe the tools used to carry out United States foreign policy.

    • 16.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Examine the different forces that influence U.S. foreign policy, including business and labor organizations, interest groups, public opinion, and ethnic and religious organizations.

    • 16.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Differentiate among various governmental and nongovernmental international organizations, and describe their purposes and functions.

    • 16.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Explain and evaluate participation by the United States government in international organizations.

    • 16.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Use a variety of sources, including newspapers, magazines, and the internet to identify significant world political, demographic, and environmental developments. Analyze ways that these developments may affect United States foreign policy in specific regions of the world.

    • 16.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs

      Evaluate, take, and defend a position about whether or not the United States should promote the spread of democracy throughout the world, or in certain parts of the world, or not at all.

  • MA.17. Domain / General Standard: American Government

    Roles of Citizens in the United States: Students will explain the idea of citizenship in the United States, describe the roles of United States citizens, and identify and explain the rights and responsibilities of United States citizens. They will also examine civic dispositions conducive to the maintenance and improvement of civil society and government, and describe and demonstrate how citizens can participate responsibly and effectively in the civic and political life of the United States.

    • 17.1. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Explain the meaning and responsibilities of citizenship in the United States and Massachusetts.

    • 17.2. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Describe roles of citizens in Massachusetts and the United States, including voting in public elections, participating in voluntary associations to promote the common good, and participating in political activities to influence public policy decisions of government.

    • 17.3. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Describe how citizens can monitor and influence local, state, and national government as individuals and members of interest groups.

    • 17.4. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Research the platforms of political parties and candidates for state or local government and explain how citizens in the United States participate in public elections as voters and supporters of candidates for public office.

    • 17.5. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Identify and explain the meaning and importance of civic dispositions or virtues that contribute to the preservation and improvement of civil society and government.

    • 17.6. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Identify specific ways for individuals to serve their communities and participate responsibly in civil society and the political process at local, state, and national levels of government.

    • 17.7. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Analyze and evaluate decisions about rights of individuals in landmark cases of the United States Supreme Court such as Whitney v. California (1927), Stromberg v. California (1931), Near v. Minnesota (1931), Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969), Texas v. Johnson (1989), and Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997).

    • 17.8. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Analyze the arguments that evaluate the functions and values of voluntary participation by citizens in the civil associations that constitute civil society.

    • 17.9. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Together with other students, identify a significant public policy issue in the community, gather information about that issue, fairly evaluate the various points of view and competing interests, examine ways of participating in the decision making process about the issue, and draft a position paper on how the issue should be resolved.

    • 17.10. Learning Standard / Outcome: Roles of Citizens in the United States

      Practice civic skills and dispositions by participating in activities such as simulated public hearings, mock trials, and debates.

 
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