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Tennessee's Eighth Grade Standards

  • TN.8.1. Content Standard: Culture

    Culture encompasses similarities and differences among people including their beliefs, knowledge, changes, values, and traditions. Students will explore these elements of society to develop an appreciation and respect for the variety of human cultures.

    • 8.1.01. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the nature and complexity of culture.

      • 8.1.01.a. Benchmark:

        Explain how people living in the same region maintain different ways of life.

      • 8.1.01.b. Benchmark:

        Analyze how human migration and cultural activities influence the character of a place.

    • 8.1.02. Learning Expectation:

      Discuss the development of major religions.

      • 8.1.02.a. Benchmark:

        Define religion.

      • 8.1.02.b. Benchmark:

        Describe the beliefs of America's major religions and religious organizations.

      • 8.1.02.c. Benchmark:

        Describe how religion contributed to the growth of representative government in the American colonies.

    • 8.1.03. Learning Expectation:

      Identify the role those diverse cultures had on the development of the Americas.

      • 8.1.03.a. Benchmark:

        List the various cultures that contributed to the development of the United States.

      • 8.1.03.b. Benchmark:

        Identify and examine perspectives of various cultural groups within early American history.

    • 8.1.04. Learning Expectation:

      Describe the influence of science and technology on the development of culture through time.

      • 8.1.04.a. Benchmark:

        Identify specific technological innovations and their uses.

      • 8.1.04.b. Benchmark:

        Construct a time line of technological innovations and rate their relative importance on culture.

  • TN.8.2. Content Standard: Economics

    Globalization of the economy, the explosion of population growth, technological changes and international competition compel students to understand both personally and globally production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Students will examine and analyze economic concepts such as basic needs versus wants, using versus saving money, and policy making versus decision making.

    • 8.2.01. Learning Expectation:

      Understand fundamental economic concepts and their application to a variety of economic systems.

      • 8.2.01.a. Benchmark:

        Describe the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives, and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system.

      • 8.2.01.b. Benchmark:

        Describe the differences within economic theories such as mercantilism and capitalism.

      • 8.2.01.c. Benchmark:

        List the major industrial and agricultural products of Tennessee and the United States.

      • 8.2.01.d. Benchmark:

        Describe a range of examples of the various institutions that make up economic systems such as households, business firms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations.

      • 8.2.01.e. Benchmark:

        Analyze the impact of economic phenomena within the free enterprise system such as supply and demand, profit, government regulation, and world competition on the economy of Tennessee and early America.

    • 8.2.02. Learning Expectation:

      Understand global economic connections, conflicts, and interdependence.

      • 8.2.02.b. Benchmark:

        Define various types of economies and their methods of production and consumption.

      • 8.2.02.c. Benchmark:

        Apply economic concepts to evaluate historic and contemporary developments.

      • 8.2.02.d. Benchmark:

        Explain the economic impact of improved communication and transportation on the world economy.

      • 8.2.02.e. Benchmark:

        Analyze the impact of national and international markets and events on the production of goods and services in Tennessee and early America.

    • 8.2.03. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the potential costs and benefits of individual economic choices in the market economy.

      • 8.2.03.a. Benchmark:

        Define microeconomic terms such as credit, debt, goods, services, domestic products, imports, and exports.

      • 8.2.03.b. Benchmark:

        Analyze how supply and demand, and change in technologies impact the cost for goods and services.

      • 8.2.03.c. Benchmark:

        Evaluate the relationship between creditors and debtors.

      • 8.2.03.d. Benchmark:

        Explain and illustrate how values and beliefs influence different economic decisions related to needs and wants.

    • 8.2.04. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the interactions of individuals, businesses, and the government in a market economy.

      • 8.2.04.a. Benchmark:

        Define macroeconomic terms such as economic alignments, credit, market economy, tariffs, closed economies, and emerging markets.

      • 8.2.04.b. Benchmark:

        Generalize and evaluate the process of governmental taxation on individuals and businesses.

      • 8.2.04.c. Benchmark:

        Evaluate the domestic and international impact of various economic agreements.

      • 8.2.04.d. Benchmark:

        Compare basic economic systems according to who determines what is produced, distributed, and consumed.

      • 8.2.04.e. Benchmark:

        Explain economic factors that led to the urbanization of Tennessee and early America.

      • 8.2.04.f. Benchmark:

        Trace the development of major industries that contributed to the urbanization of Tennessee and early America.

      • 8.2.04.g. Benchmark:

        Explain the changes in types of jobs and occupations that resulted from the urbanization of Tennessee and early America.

  • TN.8.3. Content Standard: Geography

    Geography enables the students to see, understand and appreciate the web of relationships between people, places, and environments. Students will use the knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts within the six essential elements of geography: world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and the uses of geography.

    • 8.3.01. Learning Expectation:

      Understand how to use maps, globes, and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.

      • 8.3.01.a. Benchmark:

        Locate major countries and regions of the world on a map or globe focusing on those countries and regions that relate to the development of North America.

      • 8.3.01.b. Benchmark:

        Identify the routes of contact between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa.

      • 8.3.01.c. Benchmark:

        Illustrate the geographic exchange of ideas, materials, and goods between the Americas and the rest of the world prior to the Civil War.

    • 8.3.02. Learning Expectation:

      Know the location of places and geographic features, both physical and human, in Tennessee and the United States.

      • 8.3.02.a. Benchmark:

        Identify major landforms, bodies of water, cities, and states.

      • 8.3.02.b. Benchmark:

        Identify the physical, economic, and cultural regions of the United States.

      • 8.3.02.c. Benchmark:

        Explain the factors that contribute to the placement of cities and boundaries.

    • 8.3.03. Learning Expectation:

      Recognize the interaction between human and physical systems.

      • 8.3.03.a. Benchmark:

        Explain how physical features such as Major River and mountain systems affected the development of early Native American and early European settlements.

      • 8.3.03.b. Benchmark:

        Explain how environmental factors influenced the way of life of the various peoples of the Americas.

      • 8.3.03.c. Benchmark:

        Describe how geographic features affected the development of transportation and communication networks.

      • 8.3.03.d. Benchmark:

        Explain the influences of geographic features both physical and human on historical events.

      • 8.3.03.e. Benchmark:

        Explain how physical processes shape the United States' features and patterns.

      • 8.3.03.f. Benchmark:

        Understand the differences in population characteristics of the United States such as density, distribution, and growth rates.

    • 8.3.04. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the geographic factors that determined the locations and patterns of settlements in the United States and Tennessee.

      • 8.3.04.a. Benchmark:

        Explain how processes of migration affected development of settlements in the United States.

      • 8.3.04.b. Benchmark:

        Explain how environmental issues such as water supply and resource availability influenced settlement patterns.

    • 8.3.05. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the impact of immigration and migration on a society.

      • 8.3.05.a. Benchmark:

        List the causes of migration and immigration.

      • 8.3.05.b. Benchmark:

        Discuss the economic and social impact of immigration and migration on a region or country.

      • 8.3.05.c. Benchmark:

        Categorize causes of migration and immigration into 'push and pull' factors.

  • TN.8.4. Content Standard: Governance and Civics

    Governance establishes structures of power and authority in order to provide order and stability. Civic efficacy requires understanding rights and responsibilities, ethical behavior, and the role of citizens within their community, nation, and world.

    • 8.4.01. Learning Expectation:

      Appreciate the development of people's need to organize themselves into a system of governance.

      • 8.4.01.a. Benchmark:

        Analyze the necessity of establishing and enforcing the rule of law.

      • 8.4.01.b. Benchmark:

        Analyze and explain ideas and governmental mechanisms to meet needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, and establish order and security.

      • 8.4.01.c. Benchmark:

        Explain and apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice, and influence to the examination of persistent issues and social problems.

    • 8.4.02. Learning Expectation:

      Recognize the purposes and structure of governments.

      • 8.4.02.a. Benchmark:

        Describe the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified.

      • 8.4.02.b. Benchmark:

        Distinguish basic differences between democracy and other forms of government in other regions of the world.

      • 8.4.02.c. Benchmark:

        Identify and explain the roles of formal and informal political actors in influencing and shaping public policy and decision-making.

      • 8.4.02.d. Benchmark:

        Analyze the influence of diverse forms of public opinion on the development of public policy and decision-making.

    • 8.4.03. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the relationship between a place's physical, political, and cultural characteristics and the type of government that emerges from that relationship.

      • 8.4.03.a. Benchmark:

        Relate a people's location, population, production and consumption to the function of their government.

      • 8.4.03.b. Benchmark:

        Identify models of lower to higher forms of political order.

      • 8.4.03.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the ways nations and organizations respond to forces of unity and diversity affecting order and security.

    • 8.4.04. Learning Expectation:

      Discuss how cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of resources, rights, and privileges.

      • 8.4.04.a. Benchmark:

        Differentiate between rights and privileges of the individual.

      • 8.4.04.b. Benchmark:

        Consider how cooperation and conflict affect the dissemination of resources, rights, and privileges.

      • 8.4.04.c. Benchmark:

        Explain conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among states, regions and nations.

      • 8.4.04.d. Benchmark:

        Describe and analyze the role advancements in technology have played in conflict resolution.

    • 8.4.05. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the rights, responsibilities, and privileges of citizens living in a democratic society.

      • 8.4.05.a. Benchmark:

        Define the differences between the individual and the state.

      • 8.4.05.b. Benchmark:

        Identify and interpret sources and examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizens.

      • 8.4.05.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the importance of individual rights, such as free speech and press, in a democratic society.

      • 8.4.05.d. Benchmark:

        Evaluate the role of government in balancing the rights of individuals versus the common good.

      • 8.4.05.e. Benchmark:

        Identify and describe the basic features of the political system in the early United States, and identify representative leaders from various levels and branches of government.

      • 8.4.05.f. Benchmark:

        Analyze the effectiveness of selected public policies and citizen behaviors in realizing the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government.

    • 8.4.06. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the role the Constitution of the United States plays in the lives of Americans.

      • 8.4.06.a. Benchmark:

        Recognize how the Constitution defines citizen rights.

      • 8.4.06.b. Benchmark:

        Explain how the Constitution is applied in every day life.

      • 8.4.06.c. Benchmark:

        Apply the Constitution to individual court cases.

      • 8.4.06.d. Benchmark:

        Analyze the United States Constitution in principle and practice.

      • 8.4.06.e. Benchmark:

        Compare and contrast the ways the Constitution balances the 'individual' versus the 'state.'.

    • 8.4.07. Learning Expectation:

      Understand the role that Tennessee's government plays in Tennesseeans' lives.

      • 8.4.07.a. Benchmark:

        Identify how the Tennessee Constitution reflects the principles represented in the Constitution.

      • 8.4.07.b. Benchmark:

        Identify the influences of ideas from the United States Constitution on the Tennessee Constitution.

      • 8.4.07.c. Benchmark:

        Identify civic responsibilities of Tennessee and United States citizens.

      • 8.4.07.d. Benchmark:

        Describe the structure and functions of government at municipal, county, and state levels.

      • 8.4.07.e. Benchmark:

        Identify how the different points of view of political parties and interest groups have affected important Tennessee and national issues.

      • 8.4.07.f. Benchmark:

        Identify the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of Tennessee, past and present.

      • 8.4.07.g. Benchmark:

        Analyze the contributions of Tennessee political leaders within the national scene.

  • TN.8.5. Content Standard: History

    History involves people, events, and issues. Students will evaluate evidence to develop comparative and casual analyses, and to interpret primary sources. They will construct sound historical arguments and perspectives on which informed decisions in contemporary life can be based.

    • 8.5.01. Learning Expectation: Era 1 -Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)

      Identify ancient civilizations of the Americas.

      • 8.5.01.a. Benchmark:

        Identify the ancient civilizations in the Americas.

      • 8.5.01.b. Benchmark:

        Explain the cultures of the Western Hemisphere's native peoples prior to European contact.

      • 8.5.01.c. Benchmark:

        Evaluate the expanding intercontinental exchange and the conflicts brought on by exploration and colonization.

    • 8.5.02. Learning Expectation: Era 1 -Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)

      Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.

      • 8.5.02.a. Benchmark:

        Describe the role religion played in Western Europe, during the age of exploration, with respect to subsequent crusading tradition and overseas exploration.

      • 8.5.02.b. Benchmark:

        Explain the ways geographic, technological, and scientific factors contributed to the European age of exploration and settlement in the Americas.

      • 8.5.02.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the immediate and long -term impact early European exploration had on Native populations and on colonization in the Americas.

      • 8.5.02.d. Benchmark:

        List the characteristics of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest of the Americas.

    • 8.5.03. Learning Expectation: Era 1 -Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)

      Acquire historical information from a variety of sources to develop critical sensitivities such as skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts.

      • 8.5.03.a. Benchmark:

        Recognize that the English, Spanish, Portuguese, and French differed from one another in their views regarding economics, property, and religion and this influenced the way the different cultures colonized.

      • 8.5.03.b. Benchmark:

        Identify and use key concepts such as chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity.

    • 8.5.04. Learning Expectation: Era 1 -Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)

      Recognize Tennessee's role within the early development of the Americas.

      • 8.5.04.a. Benchmark:

        Explain the geological factors that led to the geographic features of Tennessee.

      • 8.5.04.b. Benchmark:

        Describe pre-Columbian Native American peoples and their societies.

      • 8.5.04.c. Benchmark:

        List the early European explorers and their nations of origin.

    • 8.5.05. Learning Expectation: Era 2 -Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

      Identify the role that desire for freedom played in the settlement of the New World.

      • 8.5.05.a. Benchmark:

        Discuss the search for religious, economic and individual freedom in the settlement of the colonies.

      • 8.5.05.b. Benchmark:

        Classify various limits on individual freedom in Colonial America.

      • 8.5.05.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the lives of free and indentured immigrants from Europe who came to North America and the Caribbean.

      • 8.5.05.d. Benchmark:

        Recognize the contributions of European philosophers which influenced the religious and political aspects of colonial America as to how individuals contributed to participatory government, challenged inherited ideas of hierarchy, and affected the ideal of community.

      • 8.5.05.e. Benchmark:

        Explain how the evolution of English political practice impacted the colonists' sense of freedom.

    • 8.5.06. Learning Expectation: Era 2 -Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

      Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.

      • 8.5.06.a. Benchmark:

        Detail the growth and change in the European colonies during the two centuries following their founding with an emphasis on New England and Virginia.

      • 8.5.06.b. Benchmark:

        Explain the differences and similarities among the English, French and Spanish settlements.

      • 8.5.06.c. Benchmark:

        Recognize the cultural and environmental impacts of European settlement in North America.

      • 8.5.06.d. Benchmark:

        Evaluate the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses to the growth of representative government.

      • 8.5.06.e. Benchmark:

        Recognize the shift from utilizing indentured servitude to slavery within the colonies due to economic reasons and popular uprisings.

    • 8.5.07. Learning Expectation: Era 2 -Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

      Use historical information acquired from a variety of sources to develop critical sensitivities such as skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts.

      • 8.5.07.a. Benchmark:

        Read and analyze a primary source document such as diaries, letters and contracts.

      • 8.5.07.b. Benchmark:

        Recognize how family and gender roles of different regions of colonial America changed across time.

    • 8.5.08. Learning Expectation: Era 2 -Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

      Understand the social, cultural and political events that shaped African slavery in colonial America.

      • 8.5.08.a. Benchmark:

        Recognize that the economic systems employed in the northern colonies differed from those of the southern colonies.

      • 8.5.08.b. Benchmark:

        Explain how the Declaration of Independence conflicts with the institution of chattel slavery.

      • 8.5.08.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the contributions of free and enslaved blacks in United States history.

    • 8.5.09. Learning Expectation: Era 2 -Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

      Recognize Tennessee's role within Colonial America.

      • 8.5.09.a. Benchmark:

        Identify Tennessee's natural resources.

      • 8.5.09.b. Benchmark:

        Discuss how the Proclamation Line did not deter western expansion of colonials.

      • 8.5.09.c. Benchmark:

        Explain the significance of the Cumberland Gap in Tennessee history.

    • 8.5.10. Learning Expectation: Era 3 -Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)

      Understand the causes and results of the American Revolution.

      • 8.5.10.a. Benchmark:

        Explain the events that contributed to the outbreak of the American Revolution such as leaders who resisted imperial policy, the English tax on colonists from the Seven Years War, divergent economic interests, and regional motivations.

      • 8.5.10.b. Benchmark:

        Know the Declaration of Independence, its major ideas, and its sources.

      • 8.5.10.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the armed conflict of the Revolutionary War.

      • 8.5.10.d. Benchmark:

        Explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution.

    • 8.5.11. Learning Expectation: Era 3 -Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)

      Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.

      • 8.5.11.a. Benchmark:

        Explain the major political issues of the thirteen colonies after their independence, which led to the creation of the Articles of Confederation.

      • 8.5.11.b. Benchmark:

        Explain the economic issues addressed by the Continental Congress and its subsequent successes and failures.

      • 8.5.11.c. Benchmark:

        Recognize the debate over the necessity of the Bill of Rights.

      • 8.5.11.d. Benchmark:

        Explain the factors and results of Shay's Rebellion.

      • 8.5.11.e. Benchmark:

        Describe the birth of America's political parties.

    • 8.5.12. Learning Expectation: Era 3 -Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)

      Demonstrate how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources to develop critical sensitivities such as skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts.

      • 8.5.12.a. Benchmark:

        Analyze documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the Federalist Papers, the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

      • 8.5.12.b. Benchmark:

        Explain the differing perspectives and roles played in the American Revolution by various groups of people.

    • 8.5.13. Learning Expectation: Era 3 -Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)

      Identify Tennessee's role within early development of the nation.

      • 8.5.13.a. Benchmark:

        Describe the events that led to the creation and the failure of the state of Franklin.

      • 8.5.13.b. Benchmark:

        Examine the expansion of settlers into Tennessee.

      • 8.5.13.c. Benchmark:

        Discuss the entry of Tennessee into the Union.

    • 8.5.14. Learning Expectation: Era 4 -Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

      Identify American territorial expansion efforts and its effects on relations with European powers and Native Americans.

      • 8.5.14.a. Benchmark:

        Give examples of maps, time lines, and charts that show western expansion.

      • 8.5.14.b. Benchmark:

        Identify the factors that led to territorial expansion and its effects.

      • 8.5.14.c. Benchmark:

        Explain the short and long term political and cultural impacts of the Louisiana Purchase.

      • 8.5.14.d. Benchmark:

        Recognize the significance of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

      • 8.5.14.e. Benchmark:

        Describe the Monroe Doctrine and its foreign policy goals.

      • 8.5.14.f. Benchmark:

        Describe the causes, sectional divisions, Native American support for the British and results of the War of 1812.

    • 8.5.15. Learning Expectation: Era 4 -Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

      Discuss sectional differences brought on by the Western movement, expansion of slavery, and emerging industrialization.

      • 8.5.15.a. Benchmark:

        Illustrate the demographics brought on by the Western movement, expansion of slavery, emerging industrialization and consequences for Native American groups.

      • 8.5.15.b. Benchmark:

        Consider the social and political impact of the theory of Manifest Destiny.

      • 8.5.15.c. Benchmark:

        Analyze governmental policy in response to sectional differences.

      • 8.5.15.d. Benchmark:

        Explain the events that led to the Mexican-American War and the consequences of the Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo.

      • 8.5.15.e. Benchmark:

        Describe the political impact of adding new states to the Union.

    • 8.5.16. Learning Expectation: Era 4 -Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

      Recognize successes and failures of reform movements of the early 1800's to develop critical sensitivities such as skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts.

      • 8.5.16.a. Benchmark:

        Define the concept of reform.

      • 8.5.16.b. Benchmark:

        Identify reform movements of early1800's.

      • 8.5.16.c. Benchmark:

        Describe the lives of immigrants in American society during the antebellum period and how this led to a rationale for reform movement.

    • 8.5.17. Learning Expectation: Era 4 -Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

      Identify Tennessee's role within expansion of the nation.

      • 8.5.17.a. Benchmark:

        Discuss the growth of Tennessee's cities and regions.

      • 8.5.17.b. Benchmark:

        Evaluate the differences among Tennessee's three grand divisions.

      • 8.5.17.c. Benchmark:

        Study the impact on Tennessee's history made by individuals.

      • 8.5.17.d. Benchmark:

        Examine the events that led to the systematic removal of Native Americans within Tennessee and the subsequent Trail of Tears.

      • 8.5.17.e. Benchmark:

        Recognize Tennessee's influence in country's westward expansion.

    • 8.5.18. Learning Expectation: Era 5 -Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

      Recognize the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

      • 8.5.18.a. Benchmark:

        Identify sectional differences that led to the Civil War.

      • 8.5.18.b. Benchmark:

        Chart the course of major events throughout the Civil War.

      • 8.5.18.c. Benchmark:

        Explain the technological, social and strategic aspects of the Civil War.

      • 8.5.18.d. Benchmark:

        Weigh political, social, and economic impact of the Civil War on the different regions of the United States.

      • 8.5.18.e. Benchmark:

        Understand that different scholars may describe the same event or situation in different ways.

    • 8.5.19. Learning Expectation: Era 5 -Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

      Identify the contributions of African Americans from slavery to Reconstruction.

      • 8.5.19.a. Benchmark:

        Recognize the economic impact of African American labor on the United States economy.

      • 8.5.19.b. Benchmark:

        Analyze the social and cultural impact of African Americans on American society.

    • 8.5.20. Learning Expectation: Era 5 -Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

      Identify Tennessee's role within the Civil War.

      • 8.5.20.a. Benchmark:

        Identify important Civil War sites within Tennessee's borders.

      • 8.5.20.b. Benchmark:

        Explain conflicts within the regions of Tennessee over Civil War issues.

      • 8.5.20.c. Benchmark:

        Discuss the contributions of significant Tennesseeans during the Civil War.

  • TN.8.6. Content Standard: Individuals, Groups, and Interactions

    Personal development and identity are shaped by factors including culture, groups, and institutions. Central to this development are exploration, identification, and analysis of how individuals, and groups work independently and cooperatively.

    • 8.6.01. Learning Expectation:

      Recognize the impact of individual and group decisions on citizens and communities.

      • 8.6.01.a. Benchmark:

        Examine persistent issues involving the rights, roles, and status of the individual in relation to the general welfare.

      • 8.6.01.b. Benchmark:

        Identify and interpret examples of stereotyping, conformity, and altruism.

    • 8.6.02. Learning Expectation:

      Understand how groups can impact change at the local, state national and world levels.

      • 8.6.02.a. Benchmark:

        Identify and analyze examples of tension between expression of individuality and group or institutional efforts to promote social conformity.

      • 8.6.02.b. Benchmark:

        Describe the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change.

      • 8.6.02.c. Benchmark:

        Apply knowledge of how groups and institutions work to meet individual needs and promote the common good.

      • 8.6.02.d. Benchmark:

        Describe the various forms institutions take and the interactions of people with institutions.