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Texas: 11th-Grade Standards

(Note: By the completion of high school, Texas students are expected to master the following standards.)

§113.41. United States History Studies Since 1877 (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

Introduction

  1. In United States History Studies Since 1877, which is the second part of a two-year study that begins in Grade 8, students study the history of the United States from 1877 to the present. The course content is based on the founding documents of the U.S. government, which provide a framework for its heritage. Historical content focuses on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to industrialization and urbanization, major wars, domestic and foreign policies, and reform movements, including civil rights. Students examine the impact of geographic factors on major events and eras and analyze their causes and effects. Students examine the impact of constitutional issues on American society, evaluate the dynamic relationship of the three branches of the federal government, and analyze efforts to expand the democratic process. Students describe the relationship between the arts and popular culture and the times during which they were created. Students analyze the impact of technological innovations on American life. Students use critical-thinking skills and a variety of primary and secondary source material to explain and apply different methods that historians use to understand and interpret the past, including multiple points of view and historical context.
  2. To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies, autobiographies, landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court, novels, speeches, letters, diaries, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.
  3. The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  4. Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
  5. Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
  6. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  7. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  8. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. History:
    The student understands the principles included in the Celebrate Freedom Week program. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze and evaluate the text, intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, and identify the full text of the first three paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence;
    • b. analyze and evaluate the application of these founding principles to historical events in U.S. history; and
    • c. explain the contributions of the Founding Fathers such as Benjamin Rush, John Hancock, John Jay, John Witherspoon, John Peter Muhlenberg, Charles Carroll, and Jonathan Trumbull Sr.
  2. History:
    The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the major characteristics that define an historical era;
    • b. identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics;
    • c. apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and
    • d. explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968-1969 (Martin Luther King Jr. assassination and U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).
  3. History:
    The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political machines, civil service reform, and the beginnings of Populism;
    • b. analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, the cattle industry boom, the rise of entrepreneurship, free enterprise, and the pros and cons of big business;
    • c. analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants, urbanization, the Social Gospel, and philanthropy of industrialists; and
    • d. describe the optimism of the many immigrants who sought a better life in America.
  4. History:
    The student understands the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain why significant events, policies, and individuals such as the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt, Sanford B. Dole, and missionaries moved the United States into the position of a world power;
    • b. evaluate American expansionism, including acquisitions such as Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico;
    • c. identify the causes of World War I and reasons for U.S. entry;
    • d. understand the contributions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing;
    • e. analyze the impact of significant technological innovations in World War I such as machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas, and trench warfare that resulted in the stalemate on the Western Front;
    • f. analyze major issues such as isolationism and neutrality raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of Versailles; and
    • g. analyze significant events such as the Battle of Argonne Forest.
  5. History:
    The student understands the effects of reform and third-party movements in the early 20th century. The student is expected to:
    • a. evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms, including initiative, referendum, recall, and the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments;
    • b. evaluate the impact of muckrakers and reform leaders such as Upton Sinclair, Susan B. Anthony, Ida B. Wells, and W. E. B. DuBois on American society; and
    • c. evaluate the impact of third parties, including the Populist and Progressive parties.
  6. History:
    The student understands significant events, social issues, and individuals of the 1920s. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze causes and effects of events and social issues such as immigration, Social Darwinism, eugenics, race relations, nativism, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of women; and
    • b. analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, Henry Ford, Glenn Curtiss, Marcus Garvey, and Charles A. Lindbergh.
  7. History:
    The student understands the domestic and international impact of U.S. participation in World War II. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including Italian, German, and Japanese dictatorships and their aggression, especially the attack on Pearl Harbor;
    • b. evaluate the domestic and international leadership of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman during World War II, including the U.S. relationship with its allies and domestic industry's rapid mobilization for the war effort;
    • c. analyze the function of the U.S. Office of War Information;
    • d. analyze major issues of World War II, including the Holocaust; the internment of German, Italian, and Japanese Americans and Executive Order 9066; and the development of conventional and atomic weapons;
    • e. analyze major military events of World War II, including the Battle of Midway, the U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands, the Bataan Death March, the invasion of Normandy, fighting the war on multiple fronts, and the liberation of concentration camps;
    • f. evaluate the military contributions of leaders during World War II, including Omar Bradley, Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, Chester A. Nimitz, George Marshall, and George Patton; and
    • g. explain the home front and how American patriotism inspired exceptional actions by citizens and military personnel, including high levels of military enlistment; volunteerism; the purchase of war bonds; Victory Gardens; the bravery and contributions of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Flying Tigers, and the Navajo Code Talkers; and opportunities and obstacles for women and ethnic minorities.
  8. History:
    The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts in the Cold War on the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Berlin airlift, and John F. Kennedy's role in the Cuban Missile Crisis;
    • b. describe how Cold War tensions were intensified by the arms race, the space race, McCarthyism, and the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), the findings of which were confirmed by the Venona Papers;
    • c. explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in the Korean War and its relationship to the containment policy;
    • d. explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in foreign countries and their relationship to the Domino Theory, including the Vietnam War;
    • e. analyze the major issues and events of the Vietnam War such as the Tet Offensive, the escalation of forces, Vietnamization, and the fall of Saigon; and
    • f. describe the responses to the Vietnam War such as the draft, the 26th Amendment, the role of the media, the credibility gap, the silent majority, and the anti-war movement.
  9. History:
    The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The student is expected to:
    • a. trace the historical development of the civil rights movement in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, including the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 19th amendments;
    • b. describe the roles of political organizations that promoted civil rights, including ones from African American, Chicano, American Indian, women's, and other civil rights movements;
    • c. identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Martin Luther King Jr., Cesar Chavez, Rosa Parks, Hector P. Garcia, and Betty Friedan;
    • d. compare and contrast the approach taken by some civil rights groups such as the Black Panthers with the nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King Jr.;
    • e. discuss the impact of the writings of Martin Luther King Jr. such as his "I Have a Dream" speech and "Letter from Birmingham Jail" on the civil rights movement;
    • f. describe presidential actions and congressional votes to address minority rights in the United States, including desegregation of the armed forces, the Civil Rights acts of 1957 and 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965;
    • g. describe the role of individuals such as governors George Wallace, Orval Faubus, and Lester Maddox and groups, including the Congressional bloc of southern Democrats, that sought to maintain the status quo;
    • h. evaluate changes and events in the United States that have resulted from the civil rights movement, including increased participation of minorities in the political process; and
    • i. describe how litigation such as the landmark cases of Brown v. Board of Education, Mendez v. Westminster, Hernandez v. Texas, Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D., Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby, and Sweatt v. Painter played a role in protecting the rights of the minority during the civil rights movement.
  10. History:
    The student understands the impact of political, economic, and social factors in the U.S. role in the world from the 1970s through 1990. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe Richard M. Nixon's leadership in the normalization of relations with China and the policy of détente;
    • b. describe Ronald Reagan's leadership in domestic and international policies, including Reaganomics and Peace Through Strength;
    • c. compare the impact of energy on the American way of life over time;
    • d. describe U.S. involvement in the Middle East such as support for Israel, the Camp David Accords, the Iran-Contra Affair, Marines in Lebanon, and the Iran Hostage Crisis;
    • e. describe the causes and key organizations and individuals of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s and 1990s, including Phyllis Schlafly, the Contract with America, the Heritage Foundation, the Moral Majority, and the National Rifle Association; and
    • f. describe significant societal issues of this time period.
  11. History:
    The student understands the emerging political, economic, and social issues of the United States from the 1990s into the 21st century. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe U.S. involvement in world affairs, including the end of the Cold War, the Persian Gulf War, the Balkans Crisis, 9/11, and the global War on Terror;
    • b. identify significant social and political advocacy organizations, leaders, and issues across the political spectrum;
    • c. evaluate efforts by global organizations to undermine U.S. sovereignty through the use of treaties;
    • d. analyze the impact of third parties on presidential elections;
    • e. discuss the historical significance of the 2008 presidential election; and
    • f. discuss the solvency of long-term entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
  12. Geography:
    The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major events. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the impact of physical and human geographic factors on the settlement of the Great Plains, the Klondike Gold Rush, the Panama Canal, the Dust Bowl, and the levee failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina; and
    • b. identify and explain reasons for changes in political boundaries such as those resulting from statehood and international conflicts.
  13. Geography:
    The student understands the causes and effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States, including western expansion, rural to urban, the Great Migration, and the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt; and
    • b. analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from legal and illegal immigration to the United States.
  14. Geography:
    The student understands the relationship between population growth and modernization on the physical environment. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the effects of population growth and distribution on the physical environment;
    • b. identify the roles of governmental entities and private citizens in managing the environment such as the establishment of the National Park System, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Endangered Species Act; and
    • c. understand the effects of governmental actions on individuals, industries, and communities, including the impact on Fifth Amendment property rights.
  15. Economics:
    The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe how the economic impact of the Transcontinental Railroad and the Homestead Act contributed to the close of the frontier in the late 19th century;
    • b. describe the changing relationship between the federal government and private business, including the costs and benefits of laissez-faire, anti-trust acts, the Interstate Commerce Act, and the Pure Food and Drug Act;
    • c. explain how foreign policies affected economic issues such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the Open Door Policy, Dollar Diplomacy, and immigration quotas;
    • d. describe the economic effects of international military conflicts, including the Spanish-American War and World War I, on the United States; and
    • e. describe the emergence of monetary policy in the United States, including the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the shifting trend from a gold standard to fiat money.
  16. Economics:
    The student understands significant economic developments between World War I and World War II. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze causes of economic growth and prosperity in the 1920s, including Warren Harding's Return to Normalcy, reduced taxes, and increased production efficiencies;
    • b. identify the causes of the Great Depression, including the impact of tariffs on world trade, stock market speculation, bank failures, and the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System;
    • c. analyze the effects of the Great Depression on the U.S. economy and society such as widespread unemployment and deportation and repatriation of people of European and Mexican heritage and others;
    • d. compare the New Deal policies and its opponents' approaches to resolving the economic effects of the Great Depression; and
    • e. describe how various New Deal agencies and programs, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Social Security Administration, continue to affect the lives of U.S. citizens.
  17. Economics:
    The student understands the economic effects of World War II and the Cold War. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front such as the end of the Great Depression, rationing, and increased opportunity for women and minority employment;
    • b. identify the causes of prosperity in the 1950s, including the Baby Boom and the impact of the GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944), and the effects of prosperity in the 1950s such as increased consumption and the growth of agriculture and business;
    • c. describe the economic impact of defense spending on the business cycle and education priorities from 1945 to the 1990s;
    • d. identify actions of government and the private sector such as the Great Society, affirmative action, and Title IX to create economic opportunities for citizens and analyze the unintended consequences of each; and
    • e. describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo, the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
  18. Economics:
    The student understands the economic effects of increased worldwide interdependence as the United States enters the 21st century. The student is expected to:
    • a. discuss the role of American entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates, Sam Walton, Estée Lauder, Robert Johnson, Lionel Sosa, and millions of small business entrepreneurs who achieved the American dream; and
    • b. identify the impact of international events, multinational corporations, government policies, and individuals on the 21st century economy.
  19. Government:
    The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
    • a. evaluate the impact of New Deal legislation on the historical roles of state and federal government;
    • b. explain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and 9/11;
    • c. describe the effects of political scandals, including Teapot Dome, Watergate, and Bill Clinton's impeachment, on the views of U.S. citizens concerning trust in the federal government and its leaders;
    • d. discuss the role of contemporary government legislation in the private and public sectors such as the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; and
    • e. evaluate the pros and cons of U.S. participation in international organizations and treaties.
  20. Government:
    The student understands the changing relationships among the three branches of the federal government. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the impact of events such as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the War Powers Act on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government; and
    • b. evaluate the impact of relationships among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government, including Franklin D. Roosevelt's attempt to increase the number of U.S. Supreme Court justices and the presidential election of 2000.
  21. Government:
    The student understands the impact of constitutional issues on American society. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the effects of landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions, including Brown v. Board of Education, and other U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Plessy v. Ferguson, Hernandez v. Texas, Tinker v. Des Moines, Wisconsin v. Yoder, and White v. Regester;
    • b. discuss historical reasons why the constitution has been amended; and
    • c. evaluate constitutional change in terms of strict construction versus judicial interpretation.
  22. Citizenship:
    The student understands the concept of American exceptionalism. The student is expected to:
    • a. discuss Alexis de Tocqueville's five values crucial to America's success as a constitutional republic: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, and laissez-faire;
    • b. describe how the American values identified by Alexis de Tocqueville are different and unique from those of other nations; and
    • c. describe U.S. citizens as people from numerous places throughout the world who hold a common bond in standing for certain self-evident truths.
  23. Citizenship:
    The student understands efforts to expand the democratic process. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify and analyze methods of expanding the right to participate in the democratic process, including lobbying, non-violent protesting, litigation, and amendments to the U.S. Constitution;
    • b. evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments and congressional acts such as the American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924; and
    • c. explain how participation in the democratic process reflects our national ethos, patriotism, and civic responsibility as well as our progress to build a "more perfect union."
  24. Citizenship:
    The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe qualities of effective leadership; and
    • b. evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Thurgood Marshall, Billy Graham, Barry Goldwater, Sandra Day O'Connor, and Hillary Clinton.
  25. Culture:
    The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe how the characteristics and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;
    • b. describe both the positive and negative impacts of significant examples of cultural movements in art, music, and literature such as Tin Pan Alley, the Harlem Renaissance, the Beat Generation, rock and roll, the Chicano Mural Movement, and country and western music on American society;
    • c. identify the impact of popular American culture on the rest of the world over time; and
    • d. analyze the global diffusion of American culture through the entertainment industry via various media.
  26. Culture:
    The student understands how people from various groups contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain actions taken by people to expand economic opportunities and political rights, including those for racial, ethnic, and religious minorities as well as women, in American society;
    • b. discuss the Americanization movement to assimilate immigrants and American Indians into American culture;
    • c. explain how the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, gender, and religious groups shape American culture;
    • d. identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women such as Frances Willard, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, Dolores Huerta, Sonia Sotomayor, and Oprah Winfrey to American society;
    • e. discuss the meaning and historical significance of the mottos "E Pluribus Unum" and "In God We Trust"; and
    • f. discuss the importance of congressional Medal of Honor recipients, including individuals of all races and genders such as Vernon J. Baker, Alvin York, and Roy Benavidez.
  27. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, telephone and satellite communications, petroleum-based products, steel production, and computers on the economic development of the United States;
    • b. explain how specific needs result in scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture, the military, and medicine, including vaccines; and
    • c. understand the impact of technological and management innovations and their applications in the workplace and the resulting productivity enhancements for business and labor such as assembly line manufacturing, time-study analysis, robotics, computer management, and just-in-time inventory management.
  28. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the free enterprise system on the standard of living in the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the application of these by the free enterprise system, including those in transportation and communication, improve the standard of living in the United States;
    • b. explain how space technology and exploration improve the quality of life; and
    • c. understand how the free enterprise system drives technological innovation and its application in the marketplace such as cell phones, inexpensive personal computers, and global positioning products.
  29. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a variety of both primary and secondary valid sources to acquire information and to analyze and answer historical questions;
    • b. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions;
    • c. understand how historians interpret the past (historiography) and how their interpretations of history may change over time;
    • d. use the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence;
    • e. evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context;
    • f. identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;
    • g. identify and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event; and
    • h. use appropriate skills to analyze and interpret social studies information such as maps, graphs, presentations, speeches, lectures, and political cartoons.
  30. Social studies skills:
    The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information;
    • b. use correct social studies terminology to explain historical concepts; and
    • c. use different forms of media to convey information, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using available computer software as appropriate.
  31. Social studies skills:
    The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
    • a. create thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States; and
    • b. pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
  32. Social studies skills:
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
    • b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

§113.42. World History Studies (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

Introduction

  1. World History Studies is a survey of the history of humankind. Due to the expanse of world history and the time limitations of the school year, the scope of this course should focus on "essential" concepts and skills that can be applied to various eras, events, and people within the standards in subsection (c) of this section. The major emphasis is on the study of significant people, events, and issues from the earliest times to the present. Traditional historical points of reference in world history are identified as students analyze important events and issues in western civilization as well as in civilizations in other parts of the world. Students evaluate the causes and effects of political and economic imperialism and of major political revolutions since the 17th century. Students examine the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and identify the historic origins of contemporary economic systems. Students analyze the process by which constitutional governments evolved as well as the ideas from historic documents that influenced that process. Students trace the historical development of important legal and political concepts. Students examine the history and impact of major religious and philosophical traditions. Students analyze the connections between major developments in science and technology and the growth of industrial economies, and they use the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple sources of evidence.
  2. The following periodization should serve as the framework for the organization of this course: 8000 BC-500 BC (Development of River Valley Civilizations); 500 BC-AD 600 (Classical Era); 600-1450 (Post-classical Era); 1450-1750 (Connecting Hemispheres); 1750-1914 (Age of Revolutions); and 1914-present (20th Century to the Present). Specific events and processes may transcend these chronological boundaries.
  3. To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as state papers, legal documents, charters, constitutions, biographies, autobiographies, speeches, letters, literature, music, art, and architecture is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, art galleries, and historical sites.
  4. The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies.
  5. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained by integrating social studies content and skills and by analyzing connections between and among historical periods and events. The list of events and people in this course curriculum should not be considered exhaustive. Additional examples can and should be incorporated. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  6. Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
  7. Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation, as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
  8. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  9. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  10. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. History:
    The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following events from 8000 BC to 500 BC: the development of agriculture and the development of the river valley civilizations;
    • b. identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following events from 500 BC to AD 600: the development of the classical civilizations of Greece, Rome, Persia, India (Maurya and Gupta), China (Zhou, Qin, and Han), and the development of major world religions;
    • c. identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 600 to 1450: the spread of Christianity, the decline of Rome and the formation of medieval Europe; the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Asia, Africa, and Europe; the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India, and Southwest Asia;
    • d. identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1450 to 1750: the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the influence of the Ming dynasty on world trade, European exploration and the Columbian Exchange, European expansion, and the Renaissance and the Reformation;
    • e. identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1750 to 1914: the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of modern economic systems, European imperialism, and the Enlightenment's impact on political revolutions; and
    • f. identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1914 to the present: the world wars and their impact on political, economic, and social systems; communist revolutions and their impact on the Cold War; independence movements; and globalization.
  2. History:
    The student understands how early civilizations developed from 8000 BC to 500 BC. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize the impact of the development of farming (Neolithic Revolution) on the creation of river valley civilizations;
    • b. identify the characteristics of civilization; and
    • c. explain how major river valley civilizations influenced the development of the classical civilizations.
  3. History:
    The student understands the contributions and influence of classical civilizations from 500 BC to AD 600 on subsequent civilizations. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the major political, religious/philosophical, and cultural influences of Persia, India, China, Israel, Greece, and Rome, including the development of monotheism, Judaism, and Christianity;
    • b. explain the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe; and
    • c. compare the factors that led to the collapse of Rome and Han China.
  4. History:
    The student understands how, after the collapse of classical empires, new political, economic, and social systems evolved and expanded from 600 to 1450. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the development of Christianity as a unifying social and political factor in medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire;
    • b. explain the characteristics of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy;
    • c. describe the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism;
    • d. explain the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe, Asia, and Africa;
    • e. describe the interactions among Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Europe, Asia, and North Africa;
    • f. describe the interactions between Muslim and Hindu societies in South Asia;
    • g. explain how the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contributed to the end of medieval Europe;
    • h. summarize the major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China and their impact on Eastern Asia;
    • i. explain the development of the slave trade;
    • j. analyze how the Silk Road and the African gold-salt trade facilitated the spread of ideas and trade; and
    • k. summarize the changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world.
  5. History:
    The student understands the causes, characteristics, and impact of the European Renaissance and the Reformation from 1450 to 1750. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the political, intellectual, artistic, economic, and religious impact of the Renaissance; and
    • b. explain the political, intellectual, artistic, economic, and religious impact of the Reformation.
  6. History:
    The student understands the characteristics and impact of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare the major political, economic, social, and cultural developments of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations and explain how prior civilizations influenced their development; and
    • b. explain how the Inca and Aztec empires were impacted by European exploration/colonization.
  7. History:
    The student understands the causes and impact of European expansion from 1450 to 1750. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the causes of European expansion from 1450 to 1750;
    • b. explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas and Europe;
    • c. explain the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa and the Americas;
    • d. explain the impact of the Ottoman Empire on Eastern Europe and global trade;
    • e. explain Ming China's impact on global trade; and
    • f. explain new economic factors and principles that contributed to the success of Europe's Commercial Revolution.
  8. History:
    The student understands the causes and the global impact of the Industrial Revolution and European imperialism from 1750 to 1914. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain how 17th and 18th century European scientific advancements led to the Industrial Revolution;
    • b. explain how the Industrial Revolution led to political, economic, and social changes in Europe;
    • c. identify the major political, economic, and social motivations that influenced European imperialism;
    • d. explain the major characteristics and impact of European imperialism; and
    • e. explain the effects of free enterprise in the Industrial Revolution.
  9. History:
    The student understands the causes and effects of major political revolutions between 1750 and 1914. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare the causes, characteristics, and consequences of the American and French revolutions, emphasizing the role of the Enlightenment, the Glorious Revolution, and religion;
    • b. explain the impact of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Wars on Europe and Latin America;
    • c. trace the influence of the American and French revolutions on Latin America, including the role of Simón Bolivar; and
    • d. identify the influence of ideas such as separation of powers, checks and balances, liberty, equality, democracy, popular sovereignty, human rights, constitutionalism, and nationalism on political revolutions.
  10. History:
    The student understands the causes and impact of World War I. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the importance of imperialism, nationalism, militarism, and the alliance system in causing World War I;
    • b. identify major characteristics of World War I, including total war, trench warfare, modern military technology, and high casualty rates;
    • c. explain the political impact of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and the political and economic impact of the Treaty of Versailles, including changes in boundaries and the mandate system; and
    • d. identify the causes of the February (March) and October revolutions of 1917 in Russia, their effects on the outcome of World War I, and the Bolshevik establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  11. History:
    The student understands the causes and impact of the global economic depression immediately following World War I. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize the international, political, and economic causes of the global depression; and
    • b. explain the responses of governments in the United States, Germany, and the Soviet Union to the global depression.
  12. History:
    The student understands the causes and impact of World War II. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the emergence and characteristics of totalitarianism;
    • b. explain the roles of various world leaders, including Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Hideki Tojo, Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill, prior to and during World War II; and
    • c. explain the major causes and events of World War II, including the German invasions of Poland and the Soviet Union, the Holocaust, Japanese imperialism, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Normandy landings, and the dropping of the atomic bombs.
  13. History:
    The student understands the impact of major events associated with the Cold War and independence movements. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize how the outcome of World War II contributed to the development of the Cold War;
    • b. summarize the factors that contributed to communism in China, including Mao Zedong's role in its rise, and how it differed from Soviet communism;
    • c. identify the following major events of the Cold War, including the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the arms race;
    • d. explain the roles of modern world leaders, including Ronald Reagan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Lech Walesa, and Pope John Paul II, in the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union;
    • e. summarize the rise of independence movements in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia and reasons for ongoing conflicts; and
    • f. explain how Arab rejection of the State of Israel has led to ongoing conflict.
  14. History:
    The student understands the development of radical Islamic fundamentalism and the subsequent use of terrorism by some of its adherents. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize the development and impact of radical Islamic fundamentalism on events in the second half of the 20th century, including Palestinian terrorism and the growth of al Qaeda; and
    • b. explain the U.S. response to terrorism from September 11, 2001, to the present.
  15. Geography:
    The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
    • a. create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation; and
    • b. analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.
  16. Geography:
    The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
    • a. locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history;
    • b. analyze the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history, including the development of river valley civilizations, trade in the Indian Ocean, and the opening of the Panama and Suez canals; and
    • c. interpret maps, charts, and graphs to explain how geography has influenced people and events in the past.
  17. Economics:
    The student understands the impact of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions and globalization on humanity. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify important changes in human life caused by the Neolithic Revolution and the Industrial Revolution;
    • b. summarize the role of economics in driving political changes as related to the Neolithic Revolution and the Industrial Revolution; and
    • c. summarize the economic and social impact of 20th century globalization.
  18. Economics:
    The student understands the historical origins of contemporary economic systems and the benefits of free enterprise in world history. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the historical origins and characteristics of the free enterprise system, including the contributions of Adam Smith, especially the influence of his ideas found in The Wealth of Nations;
    • b. identify the historical origins and characteristics of communism, including the influences of Karl Marx;
    • c. identify the historical origins and characteristics of socialism;
    • d. identify the historical origins and characteristics of fascism;
    • e. explain why communist command economies collapsed in competition with free market economies at the end of the 20th century; and
    • f. formulate generalizations on how economic freedom improved the human condition, based on students' knowledge of the benefits of free enterprise in Europe's Commercial Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and 20th-century free market economies, compared to communist command communities.
  19. Government:
    The student understands the characteristics of major political systems throughout history. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the characteristics of monarchies and theocracies as forms of government in early civilizations; and
    • b. identify the characteristics of the following political systems: theocracy, absolute monarchy, democracy, republic, oligarchy, limited monarchy, and totalitarianism.
  20. Government:
    The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the development of democratic-republican government from its beginnings in the Judeo-Christian legal tradition and classical Greece and Rome through the English Civil War and the Enlightenment;
    • b. identify the impact of political and legal ideas contained in the following documents: Hammurabi's Code, the Jewish Ten Commandments, Justinian's Code of Laws, Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen;
    • c. explain the political philosophies of individuals such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Voltaire, Charles de Montesquieu, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Aquinas, John Calvin, Thomas Jefferson, and William Blackstone; and
    • d. explain the significance of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
  21. Citizenship:
    The student understands the significance of political choices and decisions made by individuals, groups, and nations throughout history. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe how people have participated in supporting or changing their governments;
    • b. describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens and noncitizens in civic participation throughout history; and
    • c. identify examples of key persons who were successful in shifting political thought, including William Wilberforce.
  22. Citizenship:
    The student understands the historical development of significant legal and political concepts related to the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize the development of the rule of law from ancient to modern times;
    • b. identify the influence of ideas regarding the right to a "trial by a jury of your peers" and the concepts of "innocent until proven guilty" and "equality before the law" that originated from the Judeo-Christian legal tradition and in Greece and Rome;
    • c. identify examples of politically motivated mass murders in Cambodia, China, Latin America, the Soviet Union, and Armenia;
    • d. identify examples of genocide, including the Holocaust and genocide in the Balkans, Rwanda, and Darfur;
    • e. identify examples of individuals who led resistance to political oppression such as Nelson Mandela, Mohandas Gandhi, Oscar Romero, Natan Sharansky, Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, and Chinese student protestors in Tiananmen Square; and
    • f. assess the degree to which American ideals have advanced human rights and democratic ideas throughout the world.
  23. Culture:
    The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism, and the development of monotheism; and
    • b. identify examples of religious influence on various events referenced in the major eras of world history.
  24. Culture:
    The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the changing roles of women, children, and families during major eras of world history; and
    • b. describe the major influences of women such as Elizabeth I, Queen Victoria, Mother Teresa, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, and Golda Meir during major eras of world history.
  25. Culture:
    The student understands how the development of ideas has influenced institutions and societies. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Eastern civilizations that originated in China and India;
    • b. summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Western civilizations that originated in Greece and Rome;
    • c. explain the relationship among Christianity, individualism, and growing secularism that began with the Renaissance and how the relationship influenced subsequent political developments; and
    • d. explain how Islam influences law and government in the Muslim world.
  26. Culture: The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify significant examples of art and architecture that demonstrate an artistic ideal or visual principle from selected cultures;
    • b. analyze examples of how art, architecture, literature, music, and drama reflect the history of the cultures in which they are produced; and
    • c. identify examples of art, music, and literature that transcend the cultures in which they were created and convey universal themes.
  27. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations affected societies prior to 1750. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the origin and diffusion of major ideas in mathematics, science, and technology that occurred in river valley civilizations, classical Greece and Rome, classical India, and the Islamic caliphates between 700 and 1200 and in China from the Tang to Ming dynasties;
    • b. summarize the major ideas in astronomy, mathematics, and architectural engineering that developed in the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations;
    • c. explain the impact of the printing press on the Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe;
    • d. describe the origins of the Scientific Revolution in 16th century Europe and explain its impact on scientific thinking worldwide; and
    • e. identify the contributions of significant scientists such as Archimedes, Copernicus, Eratosthenes, Galileo, Pythagoras, Isaac Newton, and Robert Boyle.
  28. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies from 1750 to the present. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the role of textile manufacturing and steam technology in initiating the Industrial Revolution and the role of the factory system and transportation technology in advancing the Industrial Revolution;
    • b. explain the roles of military technology, transportation technology, communication technology, and medical advancements in initiating and advancing 19th century imperialism;
    • c. explain the effects of major new military technologies on World War I, World War II, and the Cold War;
    • d. explain the role of telecommunication technology, computer technology, transportation technology, and medical advancements in developing the modern global economy and society; and
    • e. identify the contributions of significant scientists and inventors such as Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Louis Pasteur, and James Watt.
  29. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence;
    • b. explain how historians, when examining sources, analyze frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events;
    • c. explain the differences between primary and secondary sources and examine those sources to analyze frame of reference, historical context, and point of view;
    • d. evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author;
    • e. identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;
    • f. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time;
    • g. construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence; and
    • h. use appropriate reading and mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
  30. Social studies skills:
    The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. use social studies terminology correctly;
    • b. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;
    • c. interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information; and
    • d. transfer information from one medium to another.
  31. Social studies skills:
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
    • b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

§113.43. World Geography Studies (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

Introduction

  1. In World Geography Studies, students examine people, places, and environments at local, regional, national, and international scales from the spatial and ecological perspectives of geography. Students describe the influence of geography on events of the past and present with emphasis on contemporary issues. A significant portion of the course centers around the physical processes that shape patterns in the physical environment; the characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems and their interrelationships; the political, economic, and social processes that shape cultural patterns of regions; types and patterns of settlement; the distribution and movement of the world population; relationships among people, places, and environments; and the concept of region. Students analyze how location affects economic activities in different economic systems. Students identify the processes that influence political divisions of the planet and analyze how different points of view affect the development of public policies. Students compare how components of culture shape the characteristics of regions and analyze the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. Students use problem-solving and decision-making skills to ask and answer geographic questions.
  2. To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as contemporary and historic maps of various types, satellite-produced images, photographs, graphs, map sketches, and diagrams is encouraged.
  3. The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  4. Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
  5. Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
  6. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  7. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  8. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. History:
    The student understands how geography and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns and processes on the past and describe their impact on the present, including significant physical features and environmental conditions that influenced migration patterns and shaped the distribution of culture groups today; and
    • b. trace the spatial diffusion of phenomena such as the Columbian Exchange or the diffusion of American popular culture and describe the effects on regions of contact.
  2. History:
    The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the human and physical characteristics of the same regions at different periods of time to evaluate relationships between past events and current conditions; and
    • b. explain how changes in societies have led to diverse uses of physical features.
  3. Geography:
    The student understands how physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain weather conditions and climate in relation to annual changes in Earth-Sun relationships;
    • b. describe the physical processes that affect the environments of regions, including weather, tectonic forces, erosion, and soil-building processes; and
    • c. examine the physical processes that affect the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
  4. Geography:
    The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain how elevation, latitude, wind systems, ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers influence temperature, precipitation, and distribution of climate regions;
    • b. describe different landforms and the physical processes that cause their development; and
    • c. explain the influence of climate on the distribution of biomes in different regions.
  5. Geography:
    The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements; and
    • b. interpret political, economic, social, and demographic indicators (gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, literacy, and infant mortality) to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations using the terms Human Development Index, less developed, newly industrialized, and more developed.
  6. Geography:
    The student understands the types, patterns, and processes of settlement. The student is expected to:
    • a. locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements; and
    • b. explain the processes that have caused changes in settlement patterns, including urbanization, transportation, access to and availability of resources, and economic activities.
  7. Geography:
    The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
    • a. construct and analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future population trends;
    • b. explain how political, economic, social, and environmental push and pull factors and physical geography affect the routes and flows of human migration;
    • c. describe trends in world population growth and distribution; and
    • d. examine benefits and challenges of globalization, including connectivity, standard of living, pandemics, and loss of local culture.
  8. Geography:
    The student understands how people, places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture and technology;
    • b. describe the interaction between humans and the physical environment and analyze the consequences of extreme weather and other natural disasters such as El Niño, floods, tsunamis, and volcanoes; and
    • c. evaluate the economic and political relationships between settlements and the environment, including sustainable development and renewable/non-renewable resources.
  9. Geography:
    The student understands the concept of region as an area of Earth's surface with related geographic characteristics. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify physical and/or human factors such as climate, vegetation, language, trade networks, political units, river systems, and religion that constitute a region; and
    • b. describe different types of regions, including formal, functional, and perceptual regions.
  10. Economics:
    The student understands the distribution, characteristics, and interactions of the economic systems in the world. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the forces that determine the distribution of goods and services in free enterprise, socialist, and communist economic systems;
    • b. classify where specific countries fall along the economic spectrum between free enterprise and communism;
    • c. compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus commercial agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries; and
    • d. compare global trade patterns over time and examine the implications of globalization, including outsourcing and free trade zones.
  11. Economics:
    The student understands how geography influences economic activities. The student is expected to:
    • a. understand the connections between levels of development and economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary);
    • b. identify the factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities, including subsistence and commercial agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries; and
    • c. assess how changes in climate, resources, and infrastructure (technology, transportation, and communication) affect the location and patterns of economic activities.
  12. Economics:
    The student understands the economic importance of, and issues related to, the location and management of resources. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze how the creation, distribution, and management of key natural resources affects the location and patterns of movement of products, money, and people; and
    • b. evaluate the geographic and economic impact of policies related to the development, use, and scarcity of natural resources such as regulations of water.
  13. Government:
    The student understands the spatial characteristics of a variety of global political units. The student is expected to:
    • a. interpret maps to explain the division of land, including man-made and natural borders, into separate political units such as cities, states, or countries; and
    • b. compare maps of voting patterns or political boundaries to make inferences about the distribution of political power.
  14. Government:
    The student understands the processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions;
    • b. compare how democracy, dictatorship, monarchy, republic, theocracy, and totalitarian systems operate in specific countries; and
    • c. analyze the human and physical factors that influence the power to control territory and resources, create conflict/war, and impact international political relations of sovereign nations such as China, the United States, Japan, and Russia and organized nation groups such as the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU).
  15. Citizenship:
    The student understands how different points of view influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify and give examples of different points of view that influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels; and
    • b. explain how citizenship practices, public policies, and decision making may be influenced by cultural beliefs, including nationalism and patriotism.
  16. Culture:
    The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe distinctive cultural patterns and landscapes associated with different places in Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world and how these patterns influenced the processes of innovation and diffusion;
    • b. describe elements of culture, including language, religion, beliefs and customs, institutions, and technologies;
    • c. explain ways various groups of people perceive the characteristics of their own and other cultures, places, and regions differently; and
    • d. compare life in a variety of urban and rural areas in the world to evaluate political, economic, social, and environmental changes.
  17. Culture:
    The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe and compare patterns of culture such as language, religion, land use, education, and customs that make specific regions of the world distinctive;
    • b. describe major world religions, including animism, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism, and their spatial distribution;
    • c. compare economic, political, or social opportunities in different cultures for women, ethnic and religious minorities, and other underrepresented populations; and
    • d. evaluate the experiences and contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies.
  18. Culture:
    The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze cultural changes in specific regions caused by migration, war, trade, innovations, and diffusion;
    • b. assess causes, effects, and perceptions of conflicts between groups of people, including modern genocides and terrorism;
    • c. identify examples of cultures that maintain traditional ways, including traditional economies; and
    • d. evaluate the spread of cultural traits to find examples of cultural convergence and divergence such as the spread of democratic ideas, U.S.-based fast-food franchises, the English language, technology, or global sports.
  19. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. The student is expected to:
    • a. evaluate the significance of major technological innovations in the areas of transportation and energy that have been used to modify the physical environment;
    • b. analyze ways technological innovations such as air conditioning and desalinization have allowed humans to adapt to places; and
    • c. examine the environmental, economic, and social impacts of advances in technology on agriculture and natural resources.
  20. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands how current technology affects human interaction. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the impact of new information technologies such as the Internet, Global Positioning System (GPS), or Geographic Information Systems (GIS); and
    • b. examine the economic, environmental, and social effects of technology such as medical advancements or changing trade patterns on societies at different levels of development.
  21. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps;
    • b. locate places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map; and
    • c. create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.
  22. Social studies skills:
    The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. design and draw appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships;
    • b. generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence;
    • c. use geographic terminology correctly;
    • d. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation; and
    • e. create original work using proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.
  23. Social studies skills:
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results;
    • b. use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions; and
    • c. use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

§113.44. United States Government (One-Half Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

Introduction

  1. In United States Government, the focus is on the principles and beliefs upon which the United States was founded and on the structure, functions, and powers of government at the national, state, and local levels. This course is the culmination of the civic and governmental content and concepts studied from Kindergarten through required secondary courses. Students learn major political ideas and forms of government in history. A significant focus of the course is on the U.S. Constitution, its underlying principles and ideas, and the form of government it created. Students analyze major concepts of republicanism, federalism, checks and balances, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights and compare the U.S. system of government with other political systems. Students identify the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and examine the strategic importance of places to the United States. Students analyze the impact of individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media on the American political system, evaluate the importance of voluntary individual participation in a constitutional republic, and analyze the rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Students examine the relationship between governmental policies and the culture of the United States. Students identify examples of government policies that encourage scientific research and use critical-thinking skills to create a product on a contemporary government issue.
  2. To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. Constitution, selected Federalist Papers, landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court (such as those studied in Grade 8 and U.S. History Since 1877), biographies, autobiographies, memoirs, speeches, letters, and periodicals that feature analyses of political issues and events is encouraged.
  3. The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  4. Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
  5. Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
  6. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  7. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  8. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. History:
    The student understands how constitutional government, as developed in America and expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the U.S. Constitution, has been influenced by ideas, people, and historical documents. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain major political ideas in history, including the laws of nature and nature's God, unalienable rights, divine right of kings, social contract theory, and the rights of resistance to illegitimate government;
    • b. identify major intellectual, philosophical, political, and religious traditions that informed the American founding, including Judeo-Christian (especially biblical law), English common law and constitutionalism, Enlightenment, and republicanism, as they address issues of liberty, rights, and responsibilities of individuals;
    • c. identify the individuals whose principles of laws and government institutions informed the American founding documents, including those of Moses, William Blackstone, John Locke, and Charles de Montesquieu;
    • d. identify the contributions of the political philosophies of the Founding Fathers, including John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Jay, George Mason, Roger Sherman, and James Wilson, on the development of the U.S. government;
    • e. examine debates and compromises that impacted the creation of the founding documents; and
    • f. identify significant individuals in the field of government and politics, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Ronald Reagan.
  2. History:
    The student understands the roles played by individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media in the U.S. political system, past and present. The student is expected to:
    • a. give examples of the processes used by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media to affect public policy; and
    • b. analyze the impact of political changes brought about by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media, past and present.
  3. Geography:
    The student understands how geography can influence U.S. political divisions and policies. The student is expected to:
    • a. understand how population shifts affect voting patterns;
    • b. examine political boundaries to make inferences regarding the distribution of political power; and
    • c. explain how political divisions are crafted and how they are affected by Supreme Court decisions such as Baker v. Carr.
  4. Geography:
    The student understands why certain places or regions are important to the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the significance to the United States of the location and key natural resources of selected global places or regions; and
    • b. analyze how U.S. foreign policy affects selected places and regions.
  5. Economics:
    The student understands the roles played by local, state, and national governments in both the public and private sectors of the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain how government fiscal, monetary, and regulatory policies influence the economy at the local, state, and national levels;
    • b. identify the sources of revenue and expenditures of the U. S. government and analyze their impact on the U.S. economy;
    • c. compare the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and other economic systems; and
    • d. understand how government taxation and regulation can serve as restrictions to private enterprise.
  6. Economics:
    The student understands the relationship between U.S. government policies and the economy. The student is expected to:
    • a. examine how the U.S. government uses economic resources in foreign policy; and
    • b. understand the roles of the executive and legislative branches in setting international trade and fiscal policies.
  7. Government:
    The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution and why these are significant. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the importance of a written constitution;
    • b. evaluate how the federal government serves the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution;
    • c. analyze how the Federalist Papers such as Number 10, Number 39, and Number 51 explain the principles of the American constitutional system of government;
    • d. evaluate constitutional provisions for limiting the role of government, including republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights;
    • e. describe the constitutionally prescribed procedures by which the U.S. Constitution can be changed and analyze the role of the amendment process in a constitutional government;
    • f. identify how the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution contribute to both a national identity and federal identity and are embodied in the United States today; and
    • g. examine the reasons the Founding Fathers protected religious freedom in America and guaranteed its free exercise by saying that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," and compare and contrast this to the phrase, "separation of church and state."
  8. Government:
    The student understands the structure and functions of the government created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the structure and functions of the legislative branch of government, including the bicameral structure of Congress, the role of committees, and the procedure for enacting laws;
    • b. analyze the structure and functions of the executive branch of government, including the constitutional powers of the president, the growth of presidential power, and the role of the Cabinet and executive departments;
    • c. analyze the structure and functions of the judicial branch of government, including the federal court system, types of jurisdiction, and judicial review;
    • d. identify the purpose of selected independent executive agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and regulatory commissions, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Federal Communications Commission (FCC);
    • e. explain how certain provisions of the U.S. Constitution provide for checks and balances among the three branches of government;
    • f. analyze selected issues raised by judicial activism and judicial restraint;
    • g. explain the major responsibilities of the federal government for domestic and foreign policy such as national defense; and
    • h. compare the structures, functions, and processes of national, state, and local governments in the U.S. federal system.
  9. Government:
    The student understands the concept of federalism. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain why the Founding Fathers created a distinctly new form of federalism and adopted a federal system of government instead of a unitary system;
    • b. categorize government powers as national, state, or shared;
    • c. analyze historical and contemporary conflicts over the respective roles of national and state governments; and
    • d. understand the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S. federal system of government.
  10. Government:
    The student understands the processes for filling public offices in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare different methods of filling public offices, including elected and appointed offices at the local, state, and national levels;
    • b. explain the process of electing the president of the United States and analyze the Electoral College; and
    • c. analyze the impact of the passage of the 17th Amendment.
  11. Government:
    The student understands the role of political parties in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the functions of political parties and their role in the electoral process at local, state, and national levels;
    • b. explain the two-party system and evaluate the role of third parties in the United States; and
    • c. identify opportunities for citizens to participate in political party activities at local, state, and national levels.
  12. Government:
    The student understands the similarities and differences that exist among the U.S. system of government and other political systems. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare the U.S. constitutional republic to historical and contemporary forms of government such as monarchy, a classical republic, authoritarian, socialist, direct democracy, theocracy, tribal, and other republics;
    • b. analyze advantages and disadvantages of federal, confederate, and unitary systems of government; and
    • c. analyze advantages and disadvantages of presidential and parliamentary systems of government.
  13. Citizenship:
    The student understands rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:
    • a. understand the roles of limited government and the rule of law in the protection of individual rights;
    • b. identify and define the unalienable rights;
    • c. identify the freedoms and rights guaranteed by each amendment in the Bill of Rights;
    • d. analyze U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution in selected cases, including Engel v. Vitale, Schenck v. United States, Texas v. Johnson, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright, Mapp v. Ohio, and Roe v. Wade;
    • e. explain the importance of due process rights to the protection of individual rights and in limiting the powers of government; and
    • f. recall the conditions that produced the 14th Amendment and describe subsequent efforts to selectively extend some of the Bill of Rights to the states, including the Blaine Amendment and U.S. Supreme Court rulings, and analyze the impact on the scope of fundamental rights and federalism.
  14. Citizenship:
    The student understands the difference between personal and civic responsibilities. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the difference between personal and civic responsibilities;
    • b. evaluate whether and/or when the obligation of citizenship requires that personal desires and interests be subordinated to the public good;
    • c. understand the responsibilities, duties, and obligations of citizenship such as being well informed about civic affairs, serving in the military, voting, serving on a jury, observing the laws, paying taxes, and serving the public good; and
    • d. understand the voter registration process and the criteria for voting in elections.
  15. Citizenship:
    The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the U.S. constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the effectiveness of various methods of participation in the political process at local, state, and national levels;
    • b. analyze historical and contemporary examples of citizen movements to bring about political change or to maintain continuity; and
    • c. understand the factors that influence an individual's political attitudes and actions.
  16. Citizenship:
    The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
    • a. examine different points of view of political parties and interest groups such as the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Rifle Association (NRA), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) on important contemporary issues; and
    • b. analyze the importance of the First Amendment rights of petition, assembly, speech, and press and the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms.
  17. Culture:
    The student understands the relationship between government policies and the culture of the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. evaluate a U.S. government policy or court decision that has affected a particular racial, ethnic, or religious group such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the U.S. Supreme Court cases of Hernandez v. Texas and Grutter v. Bollinger; and
    • b. explain changes in American culture brought about by government policies such as voting rights, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights), the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, affirmative action, and racial integration.
  18. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands the role the government plays in developing policies and establishing conditions that influence scientific discoveries and technological innovations. The student is expected to:
    • a. understand how U.S. constitutional protections such as patents have fostered competition and entrepreneurship; and
    • b. identify examples of government-assisted research that, when shared with the private sector, have resulted in improved consumer products such as computer and communication technologies.
  19. Science, technology, and society:
    The student understands the impact of advances in science and technology on government and society. The student is expected to:
    • a. understand the potential impact on society of recent scientific discoveries and technological innovations; and
    • b. evaluate the impact of the Internet and other electronic information on the political process.
  20. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
    • b. create a product on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry;
    • c. analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue;
    • d. analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments, and counterarguments from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference;
    • e. evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps; and
    • f. use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
  21. Social studies skills:
    The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. use social studies terminology correctly;
    • b. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;
    • c. transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and
    • d. create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.
  22. Social studies skills:
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
    • b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

§113.45. Psychology (One-Half Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

Introduction

  1. In Psychology, an elective course, students study the science of behavior and mental processes. Students examine the full scope of the science of psychology such as the historical framework, methodologies, human development, motivation, emotion, sensation, perception, personality development, cognition, learning, intelligence, biological foundations, mental health, and social psychology.
  2. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  3. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  4. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  5. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. History:
    The student understands the development of the field of psychology. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify characteristics that differentiate the field of psychology from other related social sciences;
    • b. trace the historical development of the contemporary perspectives in psychology, including biological, behavioral, cognitive, sociocultural, humanistic, and psychodynamic; and
    • c. explore subfields and career opportunities available in the science of psychology.
  2. Science of psychology:
    The student differentiates the processes of theory development and validation. The student is expected to:
    • a. define and differentiate the concepts of theory and principle;
    • b. identify and describe the basic methods of social scientific reasoning;
    • c. apply the standards of the American Psychological Association (APA) for ethical decision making regarding the collection, storage, and use of psychological data; and
    • d. define and interpret measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and dispersion (range and standard deviation).
  3. Science of psychology:
    The student understands the relationship between biology and behavior. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the anatomy of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system; and
    • b. explain the effects of the endocrine and nervous systems on development and behavior.
  4. Science of psychology:
    The student understands how sensations and perceptions influence cognition and behavior. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the capabilities and limitations of sensory systems and individual perceptions; and
    • b. understand the interaction of the individual and the environment in determining sensation and perception.
  5. Individual development:
    The student understands that development is a life-long process. The student is expected to:
    • a. critique the various perspectives presented in the nature versus nurture debate;
    • b. trace the influence of physical development on the individual;
    • c. discuss the role of the caregiver on individual development;
    • d. explain factors involved in cognitive development according to Jean Piaget;
    • e. describe Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development;
    • f. evaluate the predicted outcomes of given courses of actions in particular situations based on an understanding of the development of morality; and
    • g. evaluate the presented theories of human development and specify the strengths and weaknesses of each.
  6. Individual development:
    The student understands behavioral and social learning theories. The student is expected to:
    • a. demonstrate an understanding of the principles of operant and classical conditioning and of social learning; and
    • b. describe the processes of learning using typical classroom situations.
  7. Individual identity:
    The student understands the principles of motivation and emotion. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare predominant theories of motivation and emotion; and
    • b. explore the interaction of biological and cultural factors in emotion and motivation.
  8. Individual identity: The student understands the nature of intelligence. The student is expected to differentiate the various types of intelligence.
  9. Individual identity:
    The student understands the basic principles of tests and measurements. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe statistical concepts used in testing; and
    • b. differentiate among aptitude, achievement, and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests.
  10. Individual identity:
    The student understands the development and assessment of personality. The student is expected to:
    • a. define personality;
    • b. compare and evaluate various theories of personality, including psychodynamic, trait, humanistic, and sociocultural; and
    • c. describe personality assessment tools.
  11. Individual experience:
    The student understands basic elements of cognition. The student is expected to:
    • a. define and identify the basic elements of thought;
    • b. identify strategies and obstacles associated with problem solving and decision making;
    • c. explore the structural features of language;
    • d. discuss theories of language acquisition and development;
    • e. evaluate the limitations and capabilities of the information processing model; and
    • f. understand the states and levels of consciousness.
  12. Individual experience:
    The student understands the multifaceted aspects of mental health. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain stress and the individual's physiological, behavioral, and psychological responses to stressors;
    • b. evaluate cognitive and behavioral strategies for dealing with stress;
    • c. analyze the challenges inherent in defining abnormal behavior and acknowledge the sociocultural stigma of labeling behavior as abnormal;
    • d. recognize the biological, social, and cognitive origins of abnormal behavior;
    • e. discuss major categories of abnormal behaviors and identify their respective characteristics as classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM); and
    • f. evaluate the effectiveness of past and present methods of therapy.
  13. The individual in society:
    The student will understand the influence of society and culture on behavior and cognition. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe how attributions affect explanations of behavior;
    • b. explore the nature and effects of bias and discrimination;
    • c. describe circumstances in which conformity and obedience are likely to occur;
    • d. describe the effects of the presence of others on individual behavior;
    • e. discuss the nature of altruism;
    • f. discuss the factors influencing attraction; and
    • g. identify sources of attitude formation and assess methods used to influence attitudes.
  14. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. create a product on a contemporary psychology-related issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry;
    • b. draw and evaluate conclusions from qualitative information;
    • c. apply evaluation rules to quantitative information; and
    • d. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
  15. Social studies skills:
    The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. use psychology-related terminology correctly;
    • b. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;
    • c. transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and written or visual to statistical, using computer software as appropriate; and
    • d. create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.
  16. Social studies skills: The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution;
    • b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision; and
    • c. participate in conflict resolution using persuasion, compromise, debate, and negotiation.
  17. Social studies skills:
    The student develops long-term and short-term goal-setting skills for individual and community problem solving. The student is expected to:
    • a. illustrate the relationship and sequence between intermediate goals and terminal goals; and
    • b. monitor and evaluate self-directed inquiry or projects for timelines, accuracy, and goal attainment.
  18. Science and technology:
    The student understands the relationship of changes in technology to personal growth and development. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze examples of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to changes in available technology; and
    • b. evaluate the impact of changes in technology on personal growth and development.

§113.46. Sociology (One-Half Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

Introduction

  1. Sociology, an elective course, is an introductory study in social behavior and organization of human society. This course will describe the development of the field as a social science by identifying methods and strategies of research leading to an understanding of how the individual relates to society and the ever changing world. Students will also learn the importance and role of culture, social structure, socialization, and social change in today's society.
  2. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  3. Students identify the role of the free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
  4. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  5. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  6. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. Foundations of sociology:
    The student understands the theoretical perspectives of the historical interpretations of human social development. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the development of the field of sociology;
    • b. identify leading sociologists in the field of social science, including Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, Max Weber, and Karl Marx, and interpret their contributions to the foundation of sociology; and
    • c. identify sociologists such as W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Robert E. Park, Harriet Martineau, Jane Addams, Robert Nisbet, and Julian Samora and interpret their contributions to the field.
  2. Foundations of sociology:
    The student understands how society evolves and cause and effect of social and institutional change. The student is expected to:
    • a. differentiate types of societies such as hunting and gathering, agrarian, pastoral, industrial, and post-industrial;
    • b. identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today;
    • c. examine changes in U.S. institutions and society resulting from industrialization, urbanization, and immigrant assimilation; and
    • d. analyze information about cultural life in the United States and other countries over time.
  3. Culture and social structure:
    The student examines world cultures. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the elements of culture to include language, symbols, norms, and values;
    • b. explain how the elements of culture form a whole culture; and
    • c. give examples of subcultures and describe what makes them unique.
  4. Culture and social structure:
    The student understands types of groups and their functions. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe models of primary, secondary, formal, informal, and reference groups and e-communities; and
    • b. analyze groups in terms of membership roles, status, values, mores, role conflicts, and methods of resolution.
  5. Culture and social structure:
    The student differentiates and recognizes examples of subculture and counterculture. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare cultural norms such as ethnicity, national origin, age, socioeconomic status, and gender among various U.S. subculture groups;
    • b. describe stereotypes of various U.S. subcultures;
    • c. analyze social problems in selected U.S. subcultures; and
    • d. examine counterculture movements and analyze their impact on society as a whole.
  6. Individual and society:
    The student understands the process of socialization. The student is expected to:
    • a. define socialization and describe how the process of socialization is culturally determined;
    • b. differentiate the agents of socialization and evaluate their functions and roles; and
    • c. trace socialization as a lifelong process.
  7. Individual and society:
    The student understands the concept of adolescence and its characteristics. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain how education, exclusion from the labor force, and the juvenile justice system led to the development of adolescence as a distinct stage of the life cycle;
    • b. identify and interpret the five characteristics of adolescence: biological growth and development, an undefined status, increased decision making, increased pressures, and the search for self;
    • c. identify issues and concerns facing contemporary adolescents such as dating, dating violence, sexuality, teen parenting, drug use, suicide, and eating disorders; and
    • d. identify and discuss the skills adolescents need to make responsible life choices.
  8. Individual and society:
    The student understands the life stage of adulthood and its characteristics. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the stages of adult development and compare the differences between male and female development;
    • b. analyze the traditional roles of work and how the composition of the labor force has changed in the United States; and
    • c. analyze the characteristics of late adulthood and changes on the individual and society such as retirement, physical and mental functioning, dependency on others, and death.
  9. Individual and society:
    The student will explain the nature and social function of deviance. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare theories of deviance such as the functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives;
    • b. interpret differences in crime and arrest rates by social categories such as ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age, including cross-reference with the National Crime Victimization Survey; and
    • c. analyze the criminal justice system in the United States in relation to deviant behavior.
  10. Social inequality:
    The student understands the nature of social stratification in society. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the characteristics and components of caste and class systems and social mobility and how motivation affects each;
    • b. define poverty and its components and analyze poverty's impact on the individual and society;
    • c. contrast theories of social stratification; and
    • d. recognize and examine global stratification and inequality.
  11. Social inequality:
    The student understands the impact of race and ethnicity on society. The student is expected to:
    • a. define race and ethnicity and differentiate among the distinguishing characteristics of minority groups;
    • b. contrast the terms discrimination, prejudice, and bias;
    • c. discuss the ramifications of stereotyping;
    • d. analyze the varying treatment patterns of minority groups such as African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and American Indian; and
    • e. explain instances of institutional racism in American society.
  12. Social inequality:
    The student understands changing societal views on gender, age, and health. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze how gender roles affect the opportunities available to men and women in society;
    • b. analyze the effects of an aging society;
    • c. compare the nature of health care in a global society; and
    • d. evaluate the nature of health care in different segments of American society.
  13. Social institutions:
    The student identifies the basic social institution of the family and explains its influences on society. The student is expected to:
    • a. define the functions and rituals of the family and how the family has changed over time;
    • b. define family systems and patterns;
    • c. analyze the trends in American society regarding family life and the needs that the institution of family satisfies; and
    • d. analyze ways in which family life can be disrupted.
  14. Social institutions:
    The student identifies the basic social institutions of economics and politics and explains their influence on society. The student is expected to:
    • a. define and differentiate between the economic models of free enterprise and socialism and how they impact society;
    • b. define and differentiate among different types of government and discuss the legitimacy of those in power and the impact of each on its citizens; and
    • c. trace the changes in ideas about citizenship and participation of different groups through time.
  15. Social institutions:
    The student identifies the basic social institutions of education and religion and explains their influence on society. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain functionalist, conflict, and interactionist theories of education;
    • b. argue and defend some current issues in American education;
    • c. examine religion from the sociological point of view;
    • d. analyze the functions of society and the basic societal needs that religion serves; and
    • e. compare and contrast distinctive features of religion in the United States with religion in other societies.
  16. Social institutions:
    The student understands the basic social institutions of science and the mass media and their influence on society. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify factors that have contributed to the institutionalization of science, explain the norms of scientific research, and explain how these norms differ from the realities of scientific research;
    • b. trace major developments in the history of mass media and identify the types of mass media in the United States;
    • c. explain the differences between the functionalist and conflict perspectives of mass media; and
    • d. examine contemporary mass media issues.
  17. Changing world:
    The student understands how population and urbanization contribute to a changing social world. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the study of demography, the basic demographic concepts, and changes in settlement patterns on society; and
    • b. explain and critique various theories of population growth and its impact on society.
  18. Changing world:
    The student understands how collective behavior, social movements, and modernization contribute to a changing social world. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare and contrast various types of collective behavior and social movements and how they affect society;
    • b. discuss theories that have been developed to explain collective behavior and social movements; and
    • c. illustrate three social processes that contribute to social change and discuss and evaluate how technology, population, natural environment, revolution, and war cause cultures to change.
  19. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. create a product on a contemporary sociological issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry;
    • b. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions; and
    • c. use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret sociological information.
  20. Social studies skills:
    The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. use sociology-related terminology correctly;
    • b. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;
    • c. transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and written or visual to statistical, using computer software as appropriate; and
    • d. create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.
  21. Social studies skills:
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution;
    • b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision; and
    • c. participate in conflict resolution using persuasion, compromise, debate, and negotiation.

§113.47. Special Topics in Social Studies (One-Half Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course. Students may take this course with different course content for a maximum of two credits.

Introduction

  1. In Special Topics in Social Studies, an elective course, students are provided the opportunity to develop a greater understanding of the historic, political, economic, geographic, multicultural, and social forces that have shaped their lives and the world in which they live. Students will use social science knowledge and skills to engage in rational and logical analysis of complex problems using a variety of approaches, while recognizing and appreciating diverse human perspectives.
  2. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  3. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  4. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  5. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. Social studies skills:
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. apply social studies methodologies encompassing a variety of research and analytical tools to explore questions or issues thoroughly and fairly to include multiple perspectives;
    • b. evaluate effects of major political, economic, and social conditions on a selected social studies topic;
    • c. appraise a geographic perspective that considers physical and cultural processes as they affect the selected topic;
    • d. examine the role of diverse communities in the context of the selected topic;
    • e. analyze ethical issues raised by the selected topic in historic, cultural, and social contexts;
    • f. depending on the topic, use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
    • g. depending on the topic, use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.
  2. Social studies skills:
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a. locate, analyze, organize, synthesize, evaluate, and apply information about the selected topic, identifying, describing, and evaluating multiple points of view;
    • b. differentiate between valid primary and secondary sources and use them appropriately to conduct research and construct arguments;
    • c. read narrative texts critically and identify points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference that influenced the participants;
    • d. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
    • e. collect visual images (photographs, paintings, political cartoons, and other media) to enhance understanding and appreciation of multiple perspectives in a social studies topic;
    • f. identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;
    • g. evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author; and
    • h. use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
  3. Social studies skills: The student creates written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information. The student is expected to:
    • a. apply the conventions of usage and mechanics of written English;
    • b. use social studies terminology correctly;
    • c. use appropriate oral communication techniques;
    • d. construct a thesis that is supported by evidence;
    • e. recognize and evaluate counter arguments;
    • f. use visual images (photographs, paintings, and other media) to facilitate understanding and appreciation of multiple perspectives in a social studies topic;
    • g. develop a bibliography with ideas and information attributed to source materials and authors using accepted social science formats such as Modern Language Association Style Manual (MLA) and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) to document sources and format written materials; and
    • h. use computer software to create written, graphic, or visual products from collected data.

§113.48. Social Studies Research Methods (One-Half Credit), Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

General requirements

Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course. Students may take this course with different course content for a maximum of two credits.

Introduction

  1. In Social Studies Research Methods, an elective course, students conduct advanced research on a selected topic in social studies using qualitative and/or quantitative methods of inquiry. Students present their research results and conclusions in written and visual or oral format. The course is designed to be conducted in either classroom or independent settings.
  2. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  3. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  4. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  5. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. Social studies skills:
    The student understands the need for an organizing framework to identify an area of interest and collect information. The student is expected to:
    • a. select a social studies issue, topic, or area of interest;
    • b. write a rationale and preliminary ideas for research methods;
    • c. develop a literature review; and
    • d. develop a thesis.
  2. Social studies skills:
    The student applies a process approach to a research topic, applying the ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from the social sciences in the examination of persistent issues and social questions. The student is expected to:
    • a. understand the basic requirements and philosophical foundations for qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry, including inductive and deductive reasoning, to determine the most effective research approach from a variety of alternatives;
    • b. select and design a research project, including an examination of the theory and methods applicable to the research topic;
    • c. collect information from a variety of sources (primary, secondary, written, and oral) using techniques such as questionnaires, interviews, and library research;
    • d. use current technology such as library topic catalogues, networks, online information systems, academic journals, primary sources on the Internet, email interviews, and video interviews to collect information about the selected topic;
    • e. use information from sources that take into account multiple perspectives;
    • f. differentiate between primary and secondary sources and use each appropriately to conduct research and construct arguments;
    • g. develop and use criteria for the evaluation of qualitative and/or quantitative information;
    • h. describe the results of the research process;
    • i. generate logical conclusions from research results;
    • j. justify a conclusion with supporting evidence;
    • k. make predictions as to future actions and/or outcomes based on conclusions of research; and
    • l. develop a bibliography in a format appropriate to the social sciences such as Modern Language Association Style Manual (MLA) and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) to document sources and format written materials.
  3. Social studies skills:
    If doing qualitative research, the student employs the processes of critical social science inquiry to understand an issue, topic, or area of interest using a variety of sources, checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, and searching for causality. The student is expected to:
    • a. interpret the historiography of the research topic;
    • b. apply key social science concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity;
    • c. investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures;
    • d. relate important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues to topic; and
    • e. employ empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment to analysis of topic.
  4. Social studies skills:
    If doing quantitative research, The student is expected to:
    • a. apply the scientific method in a research project;
    • b. create a matrix applying research methodologies that employ survey research, ethnography, primary documents, and statistical analysis to given subject areas;
    • c. determine the most efficient research approach;
    • d. utilize basic statistical approaches and tools in the analysis of aggregate information;
    • e. define and compute statistical information using various statistical approaches such as means testing and correlation, measures of central tendency and distribution, the development of categorical systems, and logical analysis;
    • f. analyze information using a spreadsheet or statistical analysis information software;
    • g. apply the fundamental principles and requirements of validity and reliability as used in the social sciences;
    • h. interpret patterns of behavior reflecting attitudes and values that contribute or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding; and
    • i. utilize applicable ethical standards in collecting, storing, and using human experimental or survey data.
  5. Social studies skills:
    The student creates a written and oral presentation of research and conclusions. The student is expected to:
    • a. apply the conventions of usage and mechanics of written English;
    • b. present a thesis and conclusion;
    • c. use appropriate social science terminology;
    • d. justify a conclusion with supporting evidence and address counter arguments as appropriate;
    • e. construct visuals such as statistical compilations, charts, graphs, tables, timelines, and maps to convey appropriate data;
    • f. create a presentation on a selected topic using word-processing, graphics, and multimedia software;
    • g. incorporate and present visual images (photographs, paintings, and other media) to enhance presentation; and
    • h. develop a bibliography with ideas and information attributed to source materials and authors using accepted social science formats such as Modern Language Association Style Manual (MLA) and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) to document sources and format written materials.
  6. Social studies skills:
    The student understands the principles and requirements of the scientific method. The student is expected to:
    • a. select a social studies issue, topic, or area of interest;
    • b. select and design a research project, including an examination of the theory and methods applicable to the research topic;
    • c. describe the results of the research process; and
    • d. justify a conclusion with supporting evidence and make predictions as to future actions and/or outcomes based on the conclusions of research.
 
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