Texas: 7th-Grade Standards
§113.19. Social Studies, Grade 7, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.
- In Grade 7, students study the history of Texas from early times to the present. Content is presented with more depth and breadth than in Grade 4. Students examine the full scope of Texas history, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights and Conservatism; and Contemporary Texas eras. The focus in each era is on key individuals, events, and issues and their impact. Students identify regions of Texas and the distribution of population within and among the regions and explain the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society. Students describe the structure and functions of municipal, county, and state governments, explain the influence of the U.S. Constitution on the Texas Constitution, and examine the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens. Students use primary and secondary sources to examine the rich and diverse cultural background of Texas as they identify the different racial and ethnic groups that settled in Texas to build a republic and then a state. Students analyze the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas in various industries such as agricultural, energy, medical, computer, and aerospace. Students use primary and secondary sources to acquire information about Texas.
- To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies, autobiographies, novels, speeches, letters, diaries, poetry, songs, and images is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.
- The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
- Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
- Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
- Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
- State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
- a. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
b. Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
- Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.
Knowledge and skills
The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
- a. identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain why historians divide the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights and Conservatism; and Contemporary Texas;
- b. apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and
- c. explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.
The student understands how individuals, events, and issues through the Mexican National Era shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:
- a. compare the cultures of American Indians in Texas prior to European colonization such as Gulf, Plains, Puebloan, and Southeastern;
- b. identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European exploration of Texas such as Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his writings, the search for gold, and the conflicting territorial claims between France and Spain;
- c. identify important events and issues related to European colonization of Texas, including the establishment of Catholic missions, towns, and ranches, and individuals such as Fray Damián Massanet, José de Escandón, Antonio Margil de Jesús, and Francisco Hidalgo;
- d. identify the individuals, issues, and events related to Mexico becoming an independent nation and its impact on Texas, including Texas involvement in the fight for independence, José Gutiérrez de Lara, the Battle of Medina, the Mexican federal Constitution of 1824, the merger of Texas and Coahuila as a state, the State Colonization Law of 1825, and slavery;
- e. identify the contributions of significant individuals, including Moses Austin, Stephen F. Austin, Erasmo Seguín, Martín De León, and Green DeWitt, during the Mexican settlement of Texas; and
- f. contrast Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo purposes for and methods of settlement in Texas.
The student understands how individuals, events, and issues related to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:
- a. trace the development of events that led to the Texas Revolution, including the Fredonian Rebellion, the Mier y Terán Report, the Law of April 6, 1830, the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, and the arrest of Stephen F. Austin;
- b. explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Texas Revolution, including George Childress, Lorenzo de Zavala, James Fannin, Sam Houston, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Juan N. Seguín, and William B. Travis;
- c. explain the issues surrounding significant events of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of Gonzales, William B. Travis's letter "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World," the siege of the Alamo and all the heroic defenders who gave their lives there, the Constitutional Convention of 1836, Fannin's surrender at Goliad, and the Battle of San Jacinto; and
- d. explain how the establishment of the Republic of Texas brought civil, political, and religious freedom to Texas.
The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of the Republic of Texas and early Texas statehood. The student is expected to:
- a. identify individuals, events, and issues during the administrations of Republic of Texas Presidents Houston, Lamar, and Jones, including the Texas Navy, the Texas Rangers, Edwin W. Moore, Jack Coffee Hays, Chief Bowles, William Goyens, Mary Maverick, José Antonio Navarro, the Córdova Rebellion, the Council House Fight, the Santa Fe Expedition, public debt, and the roles of racial and ethnic groups;
- b. analyze the causes of and events leading to Texas annexation; and
- c. identify individuals, events, and issues during early Texas statehood, including the U.S.-Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, population growth, and the Compromise of 1850.
The student understands how events and issues shaped the history of Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The student is expected to:
- a. explain reasons for the involvement of Texas in the Civil War such as states' rights, slavery, sectionalism, and tariffs;
- b. analyze the political, economic, and social effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas; and
- c. identify significant individuals and events concerning Texas and the Civil War such as John Bell Hood, John Reagan, Francis Lubbock, Thomas Green, John Magruder and the Battle of Galveston, the Battle of Sabine Pass, and the Battle of Palmito Ranch.
The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century. The student is expected to:
- a. identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier, the effects of westward expansion on American Indians, the buffalo soldiers, and Quanah Parker;
- b. identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings and the myths and realities of the cowboy way of life;
- c. identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the effects of the growth of railroads and the contributions of James Hogg; and
- d. explain the political, economic, and social impact of the agricultural industry and the development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier.
The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the 20th and early 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
- a. explain the political, economic, and social impact of the oil industry on the industrialization of Texas;
- b. define and trace the impact of "boom-and-bust" cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology;
- c. describe and compare the impact of the Progressive and other reform movements in Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries such as the Populists, women's suffrage, agrarian groups, labor unions, and the evangelical movement of the late 20th century;
- d. describe and compare the civil rights and equal rights movements of various groups in Texas in the 20th century and identify key leaders in these movements, including James L. Farmer Jr., Hector P. Garcia, Oveta Culp Hobby, Lyndon B. Johnson, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Jane McCallum, and Lulu Belle Madison White;
- e. analyze the political, economic, and social impact of major events, including World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II, on the history of Texas; and
- f. analyze the political, economic, and social impact of major events in the latter half of the 20th and early 21st centuries such as major conflicts, the emergence of a two-party system, political and economic controversies, immigration, and migration.
The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
- a. create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries; and
- b. analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.
The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas. The student is expected to:
- a. locate the Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, and Coastal Plains regions and places of importance in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries such as major cities, rivers, natural and historic landmarks, political and cultural regions, and local points of interest;
- b. compare places and regions of Texas in terms of physical and human characteristics; and
- c. analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.
The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
- a. identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and analyze the positive and negative consequences of the modifications; and
- b. explain ways in which geographic factors such as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Dust Bowl, limited water resources, and alternative energy sources have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.
The student understands the characteristics, distribution, and migration of population in Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
- a. analyze why immigrant groups came to Texas and where they settled;
- b. analyze how immigration and migration to Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries have influenced Texas;
- c. analyze the effects of the changing population distribution and growth in Texas during the 20th and 21st centuries and the additional need for education, health care, and transportation; and
- d. describe the structure of the population of Texas using demographic concepts such as growth rate and age distribution.
The student understands the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society. The student is expected to:
- a. explain economic factors that led to the urbanization of Texas;
- b. trace the development of major industries that contributed to the urbanization of Texas such as transportation, oil and gas, and manufacturing; and
- c. explain the changes in the types of jobs and occupations that have resulted from the urbanization of Texas.
The student understands the interdependence of the Texas economy with the United States and the world. The student is expected to:
- a. analyze the impact of national and international markets and events on the production of goods and services in Texas such as agriculture, oil and gas, and computer technology;
- b. analyze the impact of economic concepts within the free enterprise system such as supply and demand, profit, government regulation, and world competition on the economy of Texas; and
- c. analyze the impact of significant industries in Texas such as oil and gas, aerospace, medical, and computer technologies on local, national, and international markets.
The student understands the basic principles reflected in the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:
- a. identify how the Texas Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights; and
- b. compare the principles and concepts of the Texas Constitution to the U.S. Constitution, including the Texas and U.S. Bill of Rights.
The student understands the structure and functions of government created by the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:
- a. describe the structure and functions of government at municipal, county, and state levels;
- b. identify major sources of revenue for state and local governments such as property tax, sales tax, and fees; and
- c. describe the structure, funding, and governance of Texas public education, including local property taxes, bond issues, and state and federal funding supported by state and federal taxpayers.
The student understands the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
- a. identify rights of Texas citizens; and
- b. explain and analyze civic responsibilities of Texas citizens and the importance of civic participation.
The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
- a. identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues, past and present;
- b. describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society; and
- c. express and defend a point of view on an issue of historical or contemporary interest in Texas.
The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
- a. identify the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of Texas, past and present, including Texans who have been president of the United States; and
- b. identify the contributions of Texas leaders, including Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross, John Nance Garner ("Cactus Jack"), James A. Baker III, Henry B. González, Kay Bailey Hutchison, Barbara Jordan, Raymond L. Telles, Sam Rayburn, and Raul A. Gonzalez Jr.
The student understands the concept of diversity within unity in Texas. The student is expected to:
- a. explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities, celebrations, and performances;
- b. describe how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture;
- c. identify examples of Spanish influence and the influence of other cultures on Texas such as place names, vocabulary, religion, architecture, food, and the arts; and
- d. identify contributions to the arts by Texans such as Roy Bedichek, Diane Gonzales Bertrand, J. Frank Dobie, Scott Joplin, Elisabet Ney, Amado Peña Jr., Walter Prescott Webb, and Horton Foote.
Science, technology, and society:
The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:
- a. compare types and uses of technology, past and present;
- b. identify Texas leaders in science and technology such as Walter Cunningham, Michael DeBakey, Denton Cooley, Benjy Brooks, Michael Dell, and Howard Hughes Sr.;
- c. analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, energy, medical, computer, and aerospace industries;
- d. evaluate the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land; and
- e. analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have resulted in an interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world.
Social studies skills:
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
- a. differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas;
- b. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
- c. organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;
- d. identify points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference that influenced the participants;
- e. support a point of view on a social studies issue or event;
- f. identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;
- g. evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author; and
- h. use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
Social studies skills:
The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
- a. use social studies terminology correctly;
- b. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, and proper citation of sources;
- c. transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and
- d. create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.
Social studies skills:
The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
- a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
- b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.