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Virginia's Ninth Grade Standards

  • Strand / Topic: World History and Geography

    1500 A.D. to the Present

    • WHII.1 Standard / Strand:

      The student will improve skills in historical research and geographical analysis by

      • WHII.1a) Indicator / Standard:

        Identifying, analyzing, and interpreting primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history since 1500 A.D.;

      • WHII.1b) Indicator / Standard:

        Using maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and to interpret the past since 1500 A.D.;

      • WHII.1c) Indicator / Standard:

        Identifying geographic features important to the study of world history since 1500 A.D.;

      • WHII.1d) Indicator / Standard:

        Identifying and comparing political boundaries with the location of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms from 1500 A.D. to the present;

      • WHII.1e) Indicator / Standard:

        Analyzing trends in human migration and cultural interaction from 1500 A.D. to the present.

    • WHII.2 Standard / Strand:

      The student will demonstrate an understanding of the political, cultural, and economic conditions in the world about 1500 A.D. by

      • WHII.2a) Indicator / Standard:

        Locating major states and empires;

      • WHII.2b) Indicator / Standard:

        Describing artistic, literary, and intellectual ideas of the Renaissance;

      • WHII.2c) Indicator / Standard:

        Describing the distribution of major religions;

      • WHII.2d) Indicator / Standard:

        Analyzing major trade patterns;

      • WHII.2e) Indicator / Standard:

        Citing major technological and scientific exchanges in the Eastern Hemisphere.

    • Standard / Strand: Era V

      Emergence of a Global Age, 1500 to 1650 A.D.

      • WHII.3 Indicator / Standard: Emergence of a Global Age, 1500 to 1650 A.D.

        e student will demonstrate knowledge of the Reformation in terms of its impact on Western Civilization by

        • WHII.3a) Indicator:

          Explaining the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged, including the views and actions of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII;

        • WHII.3b) Indicator:

          Describing the impact of religious conflicts, including the Inquisition, on society and government actions;

        • WHII.3c) Indicator:

          Describing changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies, and assessing the role of the printing press.

      • WHII.4 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the European Age of Discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia by

        • WHII.4a) Indicator:

          Explaining the roles of explorers and conquistadors;

        • WHII.4b) Indicator:

          Describing the influence of religion;

        • WHII.4c) Indicator:

          Explaining migration, settlement patterns, cultural diffusion, and social classes in the colonized areas;

        • WHII.4d) Indicator:

          Defining the Columbian Exchange;

        • WHII.4e) Indicator:

          Explaining the triangular trade;

        • WHII.4f) Indicator:

          Describing the impact of precious metal exports from the Americas.

      • WHII.5 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of the status and impact of global trade on regional civilizations of the world after 1500 A.D. by

        • WHII.5a) Indicator:

          Describing the location and development of the Ottoman Empire;

        • WHII.5b) Indicator:

          Describing India, including the Mughal Empire and coastal trade;

        • WHII.5c) Indicator:

          Describing East Asia, including China and the Japanese shogunate;

        • WHII.5d) Indicator:

          Describing Africa and its increasing involvement in global trade;

        • WHII.5e) Indicator:

          Describing the growth of European nations, including the Commercial Revolution and mercantilism.

      • WHII.6 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by

        • WHII.6a) Indicator:

          Describing the Scientific Revolution and its effects;

        • WHII.6b) Indicator:

          Describing the Age of Absolutism, including the monarchies of Louis XIV, Frederick the Great, and Peter the Great;

        • WHII.6c) Indicator:

          Assessing the impacts of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on democracy;

        • WHII.6d) Indicator:

          Explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States;

        • WHII.6e) Indicator:

          Describing the French Revolution;

        • WHII.6f) Indicator:

          Identifying the impact of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America;

        • WHII.6g) Indicator:

          Describing the expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature, and new technology.

      • WHII.7 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of political and philosophical developments in Europe during the nineteenth century by

        • WHII.7a) Indicator:

          Assessing the impact of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, including changes in political boundaries in Europe after 1815;

        • WHII.7b) Indicator:

          Describing the influence of revolutions on the expansion of political rights in Europe;

        • WHII.7c) Indicator:

          Explaining events related to the unification of Italy and the role of Italian nationalists;

        • WHII.7d) Indicator:

          Explaining events related to the unification of Germany and the role of Bismarck.

      • WHII.8 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century by

        • WHII.8a) Indicator:

          Citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes;

        • WHII.8b) Indicator:

          Explaining the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and subsequent development of socialism and communism;

        • WHII.8c) Indicator:

          Describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement;

        • WHII.8d) Indicator:

          Explaining the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and nationalism;

        • WHII.8e) Indicator:

          Assessing the impact of European economic and military power on Asia and Africa, with emphasis on the competition for resources and the responses of colonized peoples.

      • WHII.9 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War I by

        • WHII.9a) Indicator:

          Explaining economic and political causes, major events, and identifying major leaders of the war, with emphasis on Woodrow Wilson and Kaiser Wilhelm II;

        • WHII.9b) Indicator:

          Explaining the outcomes and global effect of the war and the Treaty of Versailles;

        • WHII.9c) Indicator:

          Citing causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution.

      • WHII.10 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of political, economic, social, and cultural developments during the Interwar Period by

        • WHII.10a) Indicator:

          Describing the League of Nations and the mandate system;

        • WHII.10b) Indicator:

          Citing causes and assessing the impact of worldwide depression in the 1930s;

        • WHII.10c) Indicator:

          Examining events related to the rise, aggression, and human costs of dictatorial regimes in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan, and identifying their major leaders, i.e., Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hirohito, and Hideki Tojo.

      • WHII.11 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War II by

        • WHII.11a) Indicator:

          Explaining economic and political causes, major events, and identifying leaders of the war, with emphasis on Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George Marshall, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Hid

        • WHII.11b) Indicator:

          Examining the Holocaust and other examples of genocide in the twentieth century;

        • WHII.11c) Indicator:

          Explaining the terms of the peace, the war crimes trials, the division of Europe, plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the creation of international cooperative organizations.

      • WHII.12 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of major events and outcomes of the Cold War by

        • WHII.12a) Indicator:

          Explaining key events of the Cold War, including the competition between the American and Soviet economic and political systems and the causes of the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe;

        • WHII.12b) Indicator:

          Assessing the impact of nuclear weaponry on patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945;

        • WHII.12c) Indicator:

          Describing conflicts and revolutionary movements in eastern Asia, including those in China and Vietnam, and their major leaders, i.e., Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), Chiang Kai-shek, and Ho Chi Minh.

      • WHII.13 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of political, economic, social, and cultural aspects of independence movements and development efforts by

        • WHII.13a) Indicator:

          Describing the struggles for self-rule, including Gandhi's leadership in India;

        • WHII.13b) Indicator:

          Describing Africa's achievement of independence, including Kenyatta's leadership of Kenya;

        • WHII.13c) Indicator:

          Describing the end of the mandate system and the creation of states in the Middle East.

      • WHII.14 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of the influence of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism in the contemporary world by

        • WHII.14a) Indicator:

          Describing their beliefs, sacred writings, traditions, and customs;

        • WHII.14b) Indicator:

          Locating the geographic distribution of religions in the contemporary world.

      • WHII.15 Indicator / Standard:

        The student will demonstrate knowledge of cultural, economic, and social conditions in developed and developing nations of the contemporary world by

        • WHII.15a) Indicator:

          Identifying contemporary political issues, with emphasis on migrations of refugees and others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the impact of technology, including chemical and biological technologies;

        • WHII.15b) Indicator:

          Assessing the impact of economic development and global population growth on the environment and society, including an understanding of the links between economic and political freedom;

        • WHII.15c) Indicator:

          Describing economic interdependence, including the rise of multinational corporations, international organizations, and trade agreements.

 
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