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West Virginia: 12th-Grade Standards

Civics for the 21st Century

Responsible participatory citizenship, an understanding of the workings of our government, sound financial literacy and global awareness are essential to the preservation and improvement of American Constitutional Democracy. Civics for the 21st Century is the capstone social studies course combining civics, economics and geography to prepare students as 21st Century citizens. Students engage 21st century tools to expand upon their critical thinking and problem-solving skills allowing them to become financially literate, to develop civic efficacy, and to acquire the geographic knowledge necessary to understand the physical and human systems of the world. Students become informed decision makers as they work collaboratively and develop a correct awareness of their place in a global society. Students engage in communication skills to acquire and convey their knowledge appropriately. The West Virginia Standards for 21st Century Learning include the following components: 21st Century Content Standards and Objectives and 21st Century Learning Skills and Technology Tools. All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates learning skills, technology tools and content standards and objectives.

Social Studies Standard 1: Citizenship

SS.S.12.01 / Students will:

  • recognize and evaluate civic dispositions or traits that are important to the preservation and improvement of American democracy (e.g. individual responsibility, civility, patriotism, respect for the rights of others and for the law, honesty, openmindedness, critical mindedness, compromise). (Social Responsibility and Respect)
  • characterize and model good citizenship by building social networks of reciprocity and trustworthiness (Civic Dispositions).
  • develop civic judgments on past and current issues, support positions, and evaluate the validity of opposing viewpoints. (Critical Thinking)
  • demonstrate participatory skills characteristic of involved citizens; research and analyze public policy, monitor arguments and developments; and devise methods to influence public policy decisions. (Participatory and Collaborative Skills)
  • SS.PD.12.1 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • define basic terms of American constitutional government that include personal, political and economic rights of citizens;
      • recognize that people reach consensus, compromise and manage conflict;
      • names individual freedoms and issues of common good;
      • tell ways citizens can participate in the political process; and
      • define terms related to citizenship, responsibility and public policy.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • identify ways that American constitutional government protects personal, political and economic rights of citizens;
      • give examples of how people reach consensus, compromise and manage conflict;
      • give examples of individual freedoms and issues of common good;
      • give examples of how citizens can participate in the political process; and
      • study how responsible citizens interact, monitor and influence public policy.
    • Mastery:
      • explain the purpose of American constitutional government to protect personal, political and economic rights of citizens;
      • work with others to seek consensus, compromise and manage conflict;
      • select a current, real-world conflict between individual freedom and the common good, and take and defend a position on the conflict;
      • examine and illustrate how citizens can participate in the political process; and
      • analyze how responsible citizens interact, monitor and influence public policy as they participate in school and community activities.
    • Above Mastery:
      • assess the purpose of American constitutional government to protect personal, political and economic rights of citizens and provide relevant examples;
      • assess the reasons to work with others to seek consensus, compromise and manage conflict to determine solutions to current, real-world issues;
      • summarize a current, real- world conflict between individual freedom and the common good, and take and defend a position on the conflict;
      • investigate ways citizens can participate in the political process and help create a plan for participation; and
      • evaluate how responsible citizens interact to monitor and influence public policy and the affect of their interactions as they organize a school or community action.
    • Distinguished:
      • justify the purpose of American constitutional government to protect personal, political and economic rights of citizens and debate current issues;
      • initiate ways to work with others to reach consensus, compromise and manage conflict to establish solutions for current, real-world issues;
      • evaluate a current, real- world conflict between individual freedom and the common good, and bolster support for their position through debate;
      • research ways citizens can contribute to the political process and initiate a plan for participation; and
      • interact with other citizens as they monitor and influence public policy and justify their impact as they organize and implement a school or community action.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.12.01.01: use a rational decision-making process as an actively involved citizen to evaluate and participate in public policy decisions.
    • SS.O.12.01.02: analyze the roles of citizens in influencing and monitoring public policy at the local, state, and national levels.
    • SS.O.12.01.03: outline and evaluate the factors involved in the formulation of public policy and actively influence and monitor public policy at the local, state and national levels.
    • SS.O.12.01.04: examine and analyze the rights, privileges, responsibilities and duties of active civic participants.
    • SS.O.12.01.05: illustrate how political parties, campaigns, and elections provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
    • SS.O.12.01.06: explain that a primary purpose of American government is the protection of personal, political, and economic rights of citizens.
    • SS.O.12.01.07: examine the characteristics of citizens’ rights, and debate the necessity of reasonable limitations.
    • SS.O.12.01.08: demonstrate how to work with others to build coalitions, seek consensus, negotiate compromises and manage conflict.
    • SS.O.12.01.09: evaluate, take and defend a position involving a conflict between an individual freedom and the common good regarding specific current issues (homeland security, civil liberties, human rights, race, gender, etc.)
    • SS.O.12.01.10: support the need for political leadership, public service, and a knowledgeable citizenry in American constitutional democracy.

Social Studies Standard 2: Civics/Government

SS.S.12.02 / Students will:

  • examine and analyze the basic principles and purposes of the United States government; propose and evaluate alternatives (Purposes of Government).
  • research the historical origins analyze the meanings, and evaluate the necessity of the principles, ideals and core democratic values expressed in the foundational documents of the United States (Ideals of United States Democracy).
  • compare and contrast the structure, function and responsibilities of governments and the allocation of power at the local, state and national levels (United States Government and Politics).
  • research and diagram world political organizations; debate the role and relationship of the United States to other nations and to world affairs (United States Government and World Affairs).
  • SS.PD.12.2 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • identify the different roles of citizens in politics and government;
      • list the different levels and forms of government and recall that political, religious and economic climates influence decision-making;
      • describe the role of the media, special interest groups and political parties on political issues and public policy;
      • recognize that the United States influences global issues;
      • name factors which influenced the foundation documents
      • identify that the Supreme Court interprets the Constitution state why.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • explain the different roles of citizens in politics and government;
      • describe the different levels and forms of government and discuss how political, religious and economic climates influence decision-making;
      • compare the role of the media, special interest groups and political parties on political issues and public policy;
      • identify the areas of influence the United States on global issues;
      • examine factors which influenced the foundation documents; and
      • discuss why and how the Supreme Court interprets the Constitution.
    • Mastery:
      • interpret the different roles of citizens in politics and government;
      • outline the different levels and forms of government and evaluate how political, religious and economic climates influence decision- making;
      • analyze the role of the media, special interest groups and political parties on political issues and public policy;
      • examine the influence of the United States on global issues;
      • explain the factors which influenced the foundation documents; and
      • debate the Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution.
    • Above Mastery:
      • analyze the different roles of citizens in politics and government;
      • differentiate the different levels and forms of government and debate how political, religious and economic climates influence decision-making;
      • research and analyze the role of the media, special interest groups and political parties on current political issues and public policy;
      • evaluate the influence of the United States on global issues and defend their position;
      • evaluate the factors which influenced the foundation documents; and
      • assess the Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and defend their opinions.
    • Distinguished:
      • critique the different roles of citizens in politics and government and debate the extent to which citizens actively participate;
      • summarize the different levels and forms of government and prove that political, religious and economic climates influence decision-making;
      • judge the role of the media, special interest groups and political parties on current political issues and debate the extent of their influence and propose changes to public policy;
      • summarize the influence of the United States on global issues and make recommendations for change;
      • summarize the foundation documents and interpret their influence on the Constitution; and
      • summarize and debate the Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.12.02.01: Examine and analyze the contributing factors of the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution:
      • Leaders and Philosophers (e.g., John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson
      • Events (e.g., Glorious Revolution, Reformation, Enlightenment)
      • Documents (e.g., English Bill of Rights, Act of Succession, Magna Carta)
      • Classical periods (e.g., eras of Greece and Rome
    • SS.O.12.02.02: outline the characteristics of the political, religious, and economic climates that brought about the American Revolution.
    • SS.O.12.02.03: evaluate, take and defend the political, religious, or economic climate as the most powerful influence on a nation’s decision to go to war.
    • SS.O.12.02.04: interpret and evaluate the Preamble, Seven Articles, and Amendments (especially the Bill of Rights), of the Constitution of the United States and debate whether or not their objectives are relative today.
    • SS.O.12.03.05: evaluate, take and defend a position either on the Federalist or the Anti-Federalist papers and explain the ultimate resolutions and compromises that evolved from these. (Great Compromise, checks and balances, reserved powers.)
    • SS.O.12.02.06: analyze the Great Debate and evaluate its contribution to the Civil War.
    • SS.O.12.02.07: differentiate between the rights, privileges, responsibilities, and duties granted U.S. citizens under the Constitution of the United States and describe the role of citizens in a constitutional democracy.
    • SS.O.12.02.08: demonstrate an understanding of the purposes that constitutions serve, and the conditions that contribute to the establishment of the rule of law, and evaluate how limited government and rule of law protect individual rights under the Constitution.
    • SS.O.12.02.09: explain and assess the development and evolution of documents that display the core democratic values of the United States government as impacted by the economic, social, and political climates during different time periods in American history.
    • SS.O.12.02.10: trace and examine the history of the Constitutional Amendments and laws grounded in those Amendments illustrating relevance to the students’ own lives today and in the future.
    • SS.O.12.02.11: compare and contrast the roles and responsibilities of the local, state and national judicial systems.
    • SS.O.12.02.13: analyze the Bill of Rights (1st Ten Amendments) and examine the conflicts that arise between individual freedom as opposed to the common good concerning economic and civic conditions in today’s society. evaluate changes in these freedoms and summarize your conclusions.
    • SS.O.12.02.14: examine and defend the values, ideals and principles that are the foundation of U.S. constitutional government, and demonstrate evidence of their existence in contemporary governments worldwide.
    • SS.O.12.02.15: Differentiate between nations possessing a constitution and those with a constitutional government and correlate the Amendments of the U.S. Constitution as they evolved as evidence that the United States has a constitutional government.
    • SS.O.12.02.16: analyze how the Constitution defines and outlines a structure for the U.S. Federal System and how the Constitution provides checks and balances for a limited government.
    • SS.O.12.02.17: recognize the changes in responsibilities and powers of the three branches of federal government from the time of their inception through today and cite examples that illustrate the changes.
    • SS.O.12.02.18: examine the existing two-party system of the U.S. government and predict the impact of a 3rd party on the political process.
    • SS.O.12.02.19: assess the influence of the media on public opinion and on the decisions of government officials.
    • SS.O.12.02.20: examine the impact of special interest groups on the shaping of public policy and relate similar influences to a current initiative.
    • SS.O.12.02.21: analyze the impact of freedom of speech and press in a democratic society and give examples of how these freedoms allow citizens to express their views, shape public policy and monitor government actions.
    • SS.O.12.02.22: assess the connections between campaign financing, the media and the electoral process, and then formulate a proposal for campaign reform and predict the outcome.
    • SS.O.12.02.23: identify the demographic factors that influence voter behavior and prepare a summary of your findings regarding citizen participation in the electoral process.
    • SS.O.12.02.24: identify and research “terrorist states” that house terrorist organizations and condone their activities, and recognize the perspectives of policymakers worldwide and how they are influenced by these states and their activities.
    • SS.O.12.02.25: examine environmental abuses worldwide and create solutions for the economic vs. environmental conflicts that prevail.
    • SS.O.12.02.26: identify and examine international treaties and other agreements concerning such issues as environmental protection, arms control, space exploration and trade. then formulate an opinion as to the agendas of those involved in each treaty. and formulate an opinion as to the agendas of those who refuse to participate in the treaties.
    • SS.O.12.02.27: analyze the interaction among nation states for problem solving and partnership building through both governmental and nongovernmental approaches.
    • SS.O.12.02.28: examine, debate and use intellectual and participatory skills essential for informed, effective, and responsible citizenship that enable individuals to learn and apply civic knowledge to work with others and clearly articulate ideas and interests to monitor and influence public policy, build coalitions, seek consensus, negotiate compromise, and manage conflict.
    • SS.O.12.02.29: develop and explain civic dispositions (habits of the heart) that pervade all aspects of citizenship and personal traits of private and public character essential to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy, relate how American constitutional democracy cannot accomplish its purposes unless its citizens actively participate in public policy and civic life.

Social Studies Standard 3: Personal Finance

SS.S.12.03 / Students will:

  • research applicable information (i.e. interest rates, costs, credit scores) and formulate plans to demonstrate informed decision-making as it is reflected in responsible financial decisions (as in major purchases, college funding, retirement planning, etc.).(Spending, Saving and Investing)
  • interpret the language and ideas of financial literacy (Vocabulary)
  • analyze the reasons people borrow money, compare the costs of credit versus cash, and summarize the effects of credit on personal finance and the global economy. Credit)
  • explain financial risks and evaluate available consumer protection against financial loss. (Risk Management)
  • analyze how the role of economic choices in scarcity, supply and demand, resource allocation, decision-making, voluntary exchange, competition and trade-offs impact production and consumption worldwide. (Choices, Scarcity)
  • research, critique and evaluate the roles of private and public institutions in the economy (Financial Institutions)
  • examine and evaluate various economic systems and the interdependence of global economies. (Global Economic Systems)
  • SS.PD.12.3 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • list ways career choice influences economic future;
      • name and define basic economic concepts as part of personal financial literacy;
      • list the rights and responsibilities of informed producers and consumers; and
      • name various banking, credit, spending and discuss.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • discuss how career choice influences economic future;
      • identify and discuss basic economic concepts in personal financial literacy;
      • describe the rights and responsibilities of informed producers and consumers; and
      • discuss various banking, credit, spending and describe investment practices.
    • Mastery:
      • evaluate how career choice influences economic future;
      • apply basic economic concepts to personal financial literacy;
      • examine the rights and responsibilities of informed consumers and producers; and
      • research various banking, credit, spending and evaluate investment practices.
    • Above Mastery:
      • critique how career choice influences their personal economic future;
      • judge the basic economic concepts as applied to personal financial literacy;
      • assess the rights and responsibilities of an informed consumer citizen in real-world scenarios;
      • evaluate various banking, credit, spending and debate investment practices.
    • Distinguished:
      • distinguish how career choice influences their personal economic future;
      • research and debate basic economic concepts as applied to personal financial literacy;
      • research and evaluate rights and responsibilities of an informed consumer citizen necessary for real-world scenarios;
      • summarize various banking, credit, spending and defend investment practices.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.12.03.01: compile and prioritize lists of wants and needs and defend your decisions, then analyze the opportunity costs when choosing between wants and needs.
    • SS.O.12.03.02: create a rubric to evaluate career choices as realistic factors influencing income and lifestyle
    • SS.O.12.03.03: differentiate between gross and net income and cite the factors affecting the difference. (e.g., taxes, insurance, pension plans)
    • SS.O.12.03.05: calculate income and expenses, construct, analyze and monitor a personal budget, recognize the personal, local, national and global causes and implications of bankruptcy, and formulate a personal plan to prevent it.
    • SS.O.12.03.06: research the functions of banking services (checking, savings, ATM, check cards, debit cards, Certificates of Deposit, loans, investments, etc.) and recognize and compare relationships among economic institutions worldwide(e.g., households, businesses, banks, government agencies and labor unions).
    • SS.O.12.03.07: create a chart to compare interest rates on borrowed money and show the cost, then choose the best option and defend your decision. (e.g., personal loans, international loans between countries, corporate loans, entrepreneurial loans)
    • SS.O.12.03.08: explain the advantages and disadvantages of credit, discuss appropriate uses of credit, calculate and outline the hidden costs of credit and create a plan to reduce credit. (e.g., personal line of credit, credit cards, national debt)
    • SS.O.12.03.09: differentiate between saving and investing, construct a chart to identify investment options and formulate an investment plan to meet long and short term financial goals.
    • SS.O.12.03.10: explain identity theft, how to guard against it, and the consequences to the victim and to society.
    • SS.O.12.03.11: categorize types of insurance policies and analyze the costs and benefits
    • SS.O.12.03.12: identify, categorize and explain all types of taxes, compare the different collection processes, and infer how taxation, income and lifestyle affect society on personal, state, national and global scales.
    • SS.O.12.03.13: compute personal income tax short form and complete simulated real estate and personal property tax forms
    • SS.O.12.03.14: examine fraud, draw conclusions and summarize information regarding:
      • consumer rights, responsibilities, protection and legal resources
      • supplier rights, responsibilities, protection and legal resources
      • informed consumer decision-making skills
      • fraudulent practices
      • Impact o n the individual, community, nation and world
    • SS.O.12.03.15: evaluate an individual’s need for investment, saving, spending, and insurance then design a long term plan to meet those needs throughout the life cycle. e.g., defined benefit , {pension, Social Security} defined contribution {401k, IRA, 403b, etc}, investment diversity and suitability)

Social Studies Standard 4: Geography

SS.S.12.04 / Students will:

  • interpret, use and construct maps, globes and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about personal directions, people, places and environments (The World in Spatial Terms).
  • describe the physical and human characteristics of place and explain how the lives of people are rooted in places and regions (Places and Regions).
  • describe and explain the physical processes that shape the earth’s surface and create, sustain and modify the cultural and natural environment (Physical Systems).
  • identify, explain and analyze how the earth is shaped by the movement of people and their activities (Human Systems).
  • analyze the interaction of society with the environment (Environment and Society).
  • explain geographic perspective and the tools and techniques available for geographic study (Uses of Geography).
  • SS.PD.12.4 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • identify the impact of migration, urban and rural sprawl on society and environments;
      • recognize that some cultures and environments are connected;
      • recognize special interest groups and outsourcing and describe the roles of cultural diversity and assimilation;
      • name stages of development and identify sustainable development; and
      • identify and discuss demographic data on a variety of global issues.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • discuss the impact of migration, urban and rural sprawl on society and environments;
      • explain the connections between cultures and their uses of the environment;
      • recall special interest groups and describe outsourcing and discuss the roles of cultural diversity and assimilation;
      • explain stages of development and describe sustainable development; and
      • explain and illustrate demographic data on a variety of global issues.
    • Mastery:
      • examine and evaluate the impact of migration, urban and rural sprawl society and environments;
      • compare and contrast different cultural and environmental connections;
      • examine special interest groups and outsourcing and debate the roles of cultural diversity and assimilation in a variety of settings;
      • evaluate stages of development and analyze sustainable development; and
      • research, debate and evaluate demographic data on a variety of global issues.
    • Above Mastery:
      • summarize the impact of migration, urban and rural sprawl on society and environments;
      • evaluate the significance of different cultural and environment interactions;
      • analyze special interest groups and outsourcing and relate these findings to the roles of cultural diversity and assimilation;
      • summarize and compare stages of development and analyze sustainable development; and
      • summarize and debate demographic data on a variety of global issues.
    • Distinguished:
      • anticipate the impact of migration, urban and rural sprawl society and environments;
      • formulate and test hypotheses related to cultural and environmental connections;
      • evaluate special interest groups and outsourcing and debate the connections between the roles of cultural diversity and assimilation;
      • predict stages of development and create sustainable development scenarios; and
      • anticipate changes in demographic data on a variety of global issues.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.12.04.01: map and analyze spatial data from public records and share results with the community.
    • SS.O.12.04.02: debate the negative and positive aspects of zoning and annexation, evaluate the proposed land uses in your community and anticipate the outcomes.
    • SS.O.12.04.03: conduct research using demographic data to interpret, debate and evaluate the geopolitical implications of a variety of global issues:
      • Political and cultural boundaries
      • Differing rates of women’s suffrage
      • Cultural diversity and assimilation with regards to migration
      • Indicators of standards of living
      • Impact of the movement of religion
    • SS.O.12.04.04: evaluate and interpret the characteristics of migrants and the role of mental mapping in their destination decisions.
    • SS.O.12.04.05: examine the impact of sprawl (rural and urban) on society and the environment. (e.g., globalization of agriculture, energy dependency, water/soil, green houses emissions, parking lots)
    • SS.O.12.04.06: analyze sustainable development in the lives of 21st Century citizens.
    • SS.O.12.04.07: debate the roles of cultural diversity and assimilation in the More Developed Countries (MDC) versus those roles in Less Developed Countries (LDC)
    • SS.O.12.04.08: recognize the difference between political states and nation-states.
    • SS.O.12.04.09: compare the statistical measurements that differentiate LDCs from MDCs
    • SS.O.12.04.10: evaluate why development differs among countries and the causes and implications of these differences.
    • SS.O.12.04.11: evaluate the changing view of resource use on a local/global scale.
    • SS.O.12.04.12: point out the potential impacts of environmental change. (e.g. Changing areas of food production, shrinking human habitats, dense settlements).
    • SS.O.12.04.13: examine the role of special interest groups in defining ethical use of the environment and environmental protection.
    • SS.O.12.04.14: examine the reasons that may influence an industry’s move from an MDC to an LDC. (e.g., environmental regulations, government control, wages.)

Social Studies Standard 5: History

SS.S.K.05 / Students will:

  • organize, analyze and compare historical events, distinguish cause-effect relationships, theorize alternative actions and outcomes, and anticipate future application (Chronology).
  • use the processes and resources of historical inquiry to develop appropriate questions, gather and examine evidence, compare, analyze and interpret historical data (Skills and Application).
  • examine, analyze and synthesize historical knowledge of major events, individuals, cultures and the humanities in West Virginia, the United States, and the world (Culture and Humanities).
  • use historical knowledge to analyze local, state, national and global interdependence (Interpretation and Evaluation).
  • examine political institutions and theories that have developed and changed over time; and research and cite reasons for development and change (Political Institutions).
  • SS.PD.K.5 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • able to describe the characteristics of communities and families and recognize that data relates to the studentsí lives.
      • able to discuss differences in other people, times, and cultures; and describe the past through literature, art, customs, and songs.
      • able to understand that there are different sources that are used to answer questions.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • able to discuss the characteristics of communities and families and sequence data as it relates to the studentsí lives.
      • able to describe differences in other people, times, and cultures; and discover the past through literature, art, customs, and songs.
      • able to recognize sources of information to answer questions.
    • Mastery:
      • able to identify characteristics of communities and families and collect and sequence data as it relates to the studentsí lives.
      • able to research the past through literature, art, customs, and songs and explain differences in other people, times, and cultures.
      • able to identify sources of information to answer questions.
    • Above Mastery:
      • able to classify characteristics of communities and families and collect and sequence data as it relates to the studentsí lives.
      • able to discriminate between the differences in other people, times, and cultures.
      • able to relate the past through literature, art, customs, and songs.
      • able to differentiate between the different sources of information that are used to answer questions.
    • Distinguished:
      • able to contrast and compare characteristics of communities and families and interpret data as it relates to the studentsí lives and categorize the differences in other people, times, and cultures.
      • able to reconstruct the past through literature, art, customs, and songs.
      • able to match different sources of information that are used to answer specific questions.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.K.05.01: collect data and sequence time, places, people and events as they relate to the studentís own life.
    • SS.O.K.05.02: identify sources of information to answer questions.
    • SS.O.K.05.03: research the past through stories of people, heroes, pictures, songs, holidays, customs, traditions and legends and explain the differences in other people, time and cultures..
    • SS.O.K.05.04: identify characteristics of communities, families, and family life.

(Note: The following two courses are electives.)

Economics (Elective)

Understanding economics is essential for all students to enable them to reason logically about key economic issues that affect their lives as workers, consumers, and citizens. A better understanding of economics enables students to understand the forces that affect them every day and helps them identify and evaluate the consequences of personal decisions. As resources become scarce, as the economic environment changes, and as the economic impact of decisions becomes more immediate, students must course will emphasize the need to make sense of the array of economic concepts, facts, events, observations and issues in everyday life and the ability to make effective decisions about economic issues. The West Virginia Standards for 21st Century Learning include the following components: 21st Century Content Standards and Objectives and 21st Century Learning Skills and Technology Tools. All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates learning skills, technology tools and content standards and objectives.

Social Studies Standard 3: Economics Elective

SS.E.S.12.03 / Students will:

  • analyze the role of economic choices in scarcity, supply and demand, resource allocation, decision-making, voluntary exchange and trade-offs (Choices).
  • research, critique and evaluate the roles of private and public institutions in the economy (Institutions).
  • compare and contrast various economic systems and analyze their impact on individual citizens (Economic Systems).
  • describe and demonstrate how the factors of production apply to the United States economic system (Factors of Production).
  • analyze the elements of competition and how they impact the economy (Competition).
  • examine and evaluate the interdependence of global economies (Global Economies).
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.E.O.12.03.01: explain and give examples showing how scarcity of goods and services forces people to make choices about needs and wants.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.02: analyze how the scarcity of natural, technological, capital, and human resources requires economic systems to make choices about the distribution of goods and services.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.03: explain the role supply and demand, prices, incentives and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a free enterprise system.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.04: explain and give examples of opportunity costs (trade-offs) and scarcity, and analyze how these concepts are the basis of other concepts in economics.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.05: compare and contrast examples of private and public goods and services.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.06: evaluate the costs and benefits of allocating goods and services through public and private means.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.07: describe and compare relationships among economic institutions (e.g., households, businesses, banks, government agencies and labor unions).
    • SS.E.O.12.03.08: explain how specialization and division of labor in economic systems increase productivity.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.09: describe the role of money and other forms of exchange in the economic process.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.10: compare and analyze how values and beliefs influence economic decisions in different economic systems..
    • SS.E.O.12.03.11: evaluate economic systems according to how laws, rules and procedures deal with demand, supply and prices.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.12: evaluate historical and current social developments and issues from an economic perspective.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.13: explain historical and current developments and issues in local, national and global contexts from an economic perspective.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.14: define inflation and explain its effects on economic systems.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.15: define and analyze the use of fiscal and monetary policy in the national economic system.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.16: explain the process of international trade from an economic perspective.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.17: analyze and evaluate growth and stability in different economic systems.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.18: analyze a public issue from an economic perspective and propose a socially desirable solution.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.19: evaluate the role of the factors of production in a market economy.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.20: compare, contrast and evaluate different types of economies (traditional, command, market, mixed).
    • SS.E.O.12.03.21: explain how and why people who start new businesses take risks to provide goods and services.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.22: identify, define and explain basic economic concepts (e.g., opportunity costs, scarcity, supply, demand, production, exchange, and consumption. labor, wages, and capital. inflation and deflation. market economy and command economy. public and private goods and services).
    • SS.E.O.12.03.23: describe and explain the role of money, banking, savings and budgeting in everyday life.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.24: distinguish between private goods and services (e.g., the family car or a local restaurant) and public goods and services (e.g., the interstate highway system or the United States Postal Service).
    • SS.E.O.12.03.25:compare and contrast how values and beliefs, such as economic freedom, economic efficiency, equity, full employment, price stability, security and growth influence decisions in different economic situations.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.26: explain the basic characteristics of international trade, including absolute and comparative advantage, barriers to trade, exchange rates, and balance of trade.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.27: describe and explain global economic interdependence and competition, using examples to illustrate their influence on national and international policies.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.28: evaluate long term and short term cost in relationship to long and short-term benefits.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.29: identify different economic goals and the tradeoffs that must be made between economic and social goals.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.30: describe the aims of government fiscal policies (taxation, borrowing, spending) and their influence on production, employment and price levels.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.31: explain the basic principles of the U.S. free enterprise system (e.g., opportunity costs, scarcity, profit motive, voluntary exchange, private property rights, and competition).
    • SS.E.O.12.03.32: explain the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorships, partnerships and corporations.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.33: describe characteristics and give examples of pure competition, monopolistic competition and oligopolistic competition.
    • SS.E.O.12.03.34: analyze the factors involved in the process of acquiring consumer goods and services including credit, interest and insurance.

Geography (Elective)

The power and beauty of geography allows all students to see, understand, and appreciate the web of relationships between people, places, and environments. Geography provides knowledge of Earth’s physical and human systems and of the interdependency of living things and physical environments. This geography course is based on the six essential elements of geography and stresses the contemporary world and the role of the U.S. in the global community. Students will use geographic perspectives and technology to interpret culture, environment and the connection between them. Students will use the geographic skills of asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information and answering geographic questions.

Social Studies Standard 4: Geography Elective

SS.G.S.04 / Students will:

  • interpret, use and construct maps, globes and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about personal directions, people, places and environments (The World in Spatial Terms).
  • describe the physical and human characteristics of place and explain how the lives of people are rooted in places and regions (Places and Regions).
  • describe and explain the physical processes that shape the earth’s surface and create, sustain and modify the cultural and natural environment (Physical Systems).
  • identify, explain and analyze how the earth is shaped by the movement of people and their activities (Human Systems).
  • analyze the interaction of society with the environment (Environment and Society).
  • explain geographic perspective and the tools and techniques available for geographic study (Uses of Geography).
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.G.O.12.04.01: acquire geographic information and classify it using the six essential elements of geography: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and uses of geography.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.02: use maps, charts and graphs to analyze the world, to account for consequences of human/environment interaction, and to depict the geographic implications of world events.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.03: explain components of the Earth’s physical systems and the interrelationships between them, and describe the ways in which Earth’s physical processes are dynamic and interactive.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.04: explain how physical and human processes shape places and regions.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.05: identify human and physical changes in places and regions, and explain the factors that contribute to those changes.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.06: analyze and explain the interdependence and linkages between places and regions.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.07: identify the world’s physical and cultural regions, the criteria used to define them, the political and historical characteristics of the regions, and analyze the interdependence of regions in regard to trade, services, migration, and cultural values.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.08: analyze populations with regard to life expectancy, infant mortality rates, population pyramids, migration, birth rates and death rates.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.09: evaluate the impact of human migration on physical and human systems (e.g., demand for housing, schools, water supply, sewer systems, welfare systems, political systems and food production).
    • SS.G.O.12.04.10: analyze growth, decline, and development of cities over time.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.11: explain the impact of the global economic community from the standpoint of power, cooperation and conflict, and discuss the important of control of Earth’s surface and resources.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.12: discuss global geographical situations (economic, social, and political) and their implications (e.g., global warming, endangered species, terrorism, air pollution, habitat destruction, floods, resource distribution).
    • SS.G.O.12.04.13: analyze the role of physical and human geographic factors on economic patterns.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.14: explain world patterns of resource distribution and sustainability of these resources.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.15: discuss societal impacts on the environment and the affects of environment on societies.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.17: analyze the influence of geographical features on the evolution of significant historic events and movements.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.18: analyze the impact of technology on environments and societies over time and space.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.19: analyze connections between physical geography and isolation from the world community, which result in culture and geo-political instability (e.g., Afghanistan, Philippines, Somalia and the former Yugoslavia).
    • SS.G.O.12.04.20: identify causes and draw conclusions about landless cultures (e.g., Kurds, Basques, Palestinians, Jews, Northern Irish) and their desires for an independent homeland.
    • SS.G.O.12.04.21: acquire and organize geographic information (e.g., by reading and writing, using the Internet, studying maps, graphs, timelines, spreadsheets, climographs and cartograms).
    • SS.G.O.12.04.22: organize and analyze geographic information to answer geographic questions.
 
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