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West Virginia: 8th-Grade Standards

Eighth grade social studies engages students in the comprehensive study of West Virginia, from the Pre-Columbian period to the present day. Special emphasis is placed on the interdependence of geographic, cultural, political, environmental and economic factors affecting the development and future of the state. Students develop empathy for citizens worldwide as they demonstrate connections and loyalty to homeland. Students are actively engaged citizens of their school and community and develop national and global civic perspective and responsibility. Students become economically literate to understand West Virginiaís global connectivity in the market place both as a producer and a consumer of international goods and services. Students synthesize their information to predict the future development and evolution of their state. The West Virginia Standards for 21st Century Learning include the following components: 21st Century Content Standards and Objectives and 21st Century Learning Skills and Technology Tools. All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates learning skills, technology tools and content standards and objectives.

Social Studies Standard 1: Citizenship

SS.S.08.01 / Students will:

  • characterize and model good citizenship by building social networks of reciprocity and trustworthiness (Civic Dispositions).
  • model a respect for symbols, ideas and concepts of the United States and analyze the roles of significant individuals (Respect For People, Events, and Symbols).
  • develop and employ the civic skills necessary for effective citizenship by using criteria to make judgments, arrive at and defend positions and evaluate the validity of the positions or data (Evaluation Skills).
  • develop the participatory skills of interacting, monitoring and influencing that are essential for informed, effective and responsible citizenship, including participation in civic life to shape public policy (Participatory Skills).
  • recognize and communicate the responsibilities, privileges and rights of United States citizens (Civic Life).
  • SS.PD.08.1 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • match policies with citizen actions at the local, state and national level.
      • identify the process used to express opinions, solve problems and seek assistance.
      • recognize that citizens do voice their opinions for the common good and to preserve core democratic values.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • identify citizen action plans at the local, state and national level.
      • describe the process used to express opinions, solve problems and seek assistance.
      • explain that citizens should voice their opinions for the common good and to preserve core democratic values.
    • Mastery:
      • evaluate the importance of citizen actions at the local, state, and national level.
      • outline the process used to express opinions, solve problems and seek assistance.
      • evaluate the effectiveness of public opinion that promotes the common good and preserves core democratic values.
    • Above Mastery:
      • make recommendations for citizen actions at the local, state, and national level.
      • critique a plan of action outlining a the process of expressing opinions, solving problems and seeking assistance.
      • research and debate instances where public opinion affected the common good and preserved core democratic values.
    • Distinguished:
      • predict how citizen actions will influence public policy, at the local, state and national level.
      • create and recommend various plans of action outlining processes of expressing opinions, solving problems and seeking assistance.
      • compare and contrast models of public opinion turned to action and determine how these action plans affected the common good and core democratic values.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.08.01.01: evaluate how citizens can influence and participate in government at the local, state and national levels and assume the role of an active citizen participating in the democratic process(e.g., voting, community service, letter writing, town meeting, school elections).
    • SS.O.08.01.02: debate and practice forms of civic discussion.
    • SS.O.08.01.03: argue the effectiveness of selected public policies and citizen behaviors.
    • SS.O.08.01.04: compare and contrast the relationship between policy statements and action plans used to address issues of public concern.
    • SS.O.08.01.05: organize and provide examples of multiple points of view about selected public issues and evaluate the influence of diverse forms of public opinion on the development of public policy and decision-making.
    • SS.O.08.01.06: examine the strategies designed to strengthen the common good, which include a range of options for citizen action.
    • SS.O.08.01.07: identify, analyze, evaluate and interpret sources and examples of the responsibilities, privileges and rights of citizens.
    • SS.O.08.01.08: justify changes in the legal voting age and correlate voting as a responsibility and right of citizens.
    • SS.O.08.01.09: outline and utilize a process to express opinion, resolve problems and/or seek assistance.
    • SS.O.08.01.10: examine and analyze a local community and propose ways in which tourism can be developed.

Social Studies Standard 2: Civics

SS.S.08.02 / Students will:

  • examine and analyze the purposes and basic principles of the United States government (Purposes of Government).
  • outline and evaluate and analyze the origins and meaning of the principles, ideals and core democratic values expressed in the foundational documents of the United States (Ideals of United States Democracy).
  • examine and distinguish the structure, function and responsibilities of governments and the allocation of power at the local, state and national levels (United States Government and Politics).
  • analyze how the world is organized politically and compare the role and relationship of the United States to other nations and to world affairs (United States Government and World Affairs).
  • SS.PD.08.2 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • name major branches of the governments of West Virginia and the United States.
      • identify basic constitutional principles, individual rights and responsibilities.
      • match significant individuals to their contributions to the law-making process.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • differentiate between the governments of West Virginia and the United States.
      • list constitutional principles, individual rights, and responsibilities.
      • name significant individuals and their contributions to the law-making process.
    • Mastery:
      • analyze the structure and function of the West Virginia and United States governments.
      • examine constitutional principles including individual rights and responsibilities.
      • assess the impact of individuals, special interest groups, media influence public policy and government.
    • Above Mastery:
      • compare and contrast the structure and function of the West Virginia and United States governments.
      • critique constitutional principles including individual rights and responsibilities.
      • evaluate the impact of the contributions of individuals and groups to the law-making process.
    • Distinguished:
      • analyze the structure and function of the West Virginia and United States governments.
      • debate relationship between constitutional principles, individual rights, and responsibilities.
      • justify and defend the impact of the contributions of individuals and groups who have influenced the law-making process.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.08.02.01: analyze the division of powers and responsibilities of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the United States and West Virginia state government.
    • SS.O.08.02.02: cite the elected officials at the national, state and local levels, their requirements, duties and responsibilities (e.g., President, Governors, Senators, Representatives/Delegates, Members of Board of Public Works, County Commissioners, Mayor/City Council).
    • SS.O.08.02.03: examine the amendment process of the West Virginia Constitution, give examples of amendments and explain why they occurred.
    • SS.O.08.02.04: examine the amendment process of the West Virginia Constitution, give examples of amendments and explain why they occurred.
    • SS.O.08.02.05: analyze the functions and jurisdictions of the federal, state, local and special courts (e.g., United States Supreme Court, State Supreme Court, circuit courts, magistrate courts, family courts) and explain why a selected case would be heard in a designated court.
    • SS.O.08.02.06: examine and explain the various types of elections in West Virginia (e.g., primary/general, state/local, partisan/non-partisan).
    • SS.O.08.02.07: research and describe how special interest groups and the media influence government and the law-making process in West Virginia (e.g., West Virginia Education Association, United Mine Workers, Division of Tourism).
    • SS.O.08.02.08: explain major principles of American constitutional government (e.g., federalism, separation of powers, the elastic clause, checks and balances, government by consent of the governed, individual rights) and locate these principles in the West Virginia Constitution.
    • SS.O.08.02.09: analyze conditions under which constitutional government flourishes.
    • SS.O.08.02.10: list and explain the laws passed in a current legislative session and evaluate their impact (e.g., tourism, economy, education, health).

Social Studies Standard 3: Economics

SS.S.08.03 / Students will:

  • analyze the role of economic choices in scarcity, supply and demand, resource allocation, decision-making, voluntary exchange and trade-offs (Choices).
  • research, critique and evaluate the roles of private and public institutions in the economy (Institutions).
  • compare and contrast various economic systems and analyze their impact on individual citizens (Economic Systems).
  • illustrate how the factors of production impact the United States economic system (Factors of Production).
  • analyze the elements of competition and how they impact the economy (Competition).
  • examine and evaluate the interdependence of global economies (Global Economies).
  • SS.PD.08.3 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • identify economic principles, past policies, and future development opportunities.
      • identify various factors that impact the economic development of West Virginia.
      • name the most important industries in West Virginia and the sources and uses of revenue for state and local governments.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • describe economic principles and their effects on past policies and future development.
      • explain the impact of various factors on the economic development of West Virginia.
      • identify and discuss West Virginia industries and state and local revenues and explain the importance of each to West Virginia economy .
    • Mastery:
      • analyze economic principles to explain past policies and suggest changes for future development.
      • evaluate the impact of various factors on the economic development of West Virginia.
      • correlate resource use, industrial development, labor/management relations and tourism with occupational choices, changes to the environment, local and state revenue and policy decisions.
    • Above Mastery:
      • assess economic principles to predict changes for future development of industry, agriculture, human services and tourism.
      • analyze and discuss the impact and relationship of various factors on the economic development of West Virginia.
      • critique the effect of resource use, industrial development, labor/ management relations and tourism on occupational choices, changes to the environment, local and state revenue and policy decisions.
    • Distinguished:
      • summarize the interaction of economic principles as they influence future development and use this information to design an economic plan for West Virginia.
      • create a product showing the impact and relationship among various factors on the economic development of West Virginia.
      • design an economic plan for West Virginia incorporating resource use, industrial development, labor/ management relations, tourism changes to the environment, local and state revenue and policy decisions.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.08.03.01: correlate West Virginiaís economic conditions with possible affects on social conditions (e.g., employment, in/out migration).
    • SS.O.08.03.02: Evaluate the impact of each of the following on the economic growth of West Virginia
      • absentee ownership
      • national and international trade
      • renewable and nonrenewable natural resources
      • labor/management strategies
      • migration
      • physical geography
      • cultural geography
    • SS.O.08.03.03: research industries and products (e.g., tourism, coal, glass, recreation, agriculture) that are important to the economy of the four regions of West Virginia and how they relate to occupations.
    • SS.O.08.03.04: identify major sources and uses of revenue for state and local governments (e.g., property tax, income tax, fees and licenses, excise tax, levies).
    • SS.O.08.03.05: analyze the effects of national and state governmental actions on West Virginiaís economy.
    • SS.O.08.03.06: anticipate the changes in West Virginiaís economy and people due to industrial development and debate the issue of industrialization vs. preserving history and/or the environment.
    • SS.O.08.03.07: examine the effect of technological changes and cost of living on West Virginiaís economy and demographic profile (e.g., in employment, entrepreneurial businesses agriculture, tourism, education, industry).
    • SS.O.08.03.08: recognize major industries in West Virginia and identify representative jobs under each (e.g., manufacturing, mining, tourism, health care).
    • SS.O.08.03.09: assess the economic benefit or detriment of changing tourist attractions from seasonal to year round (e.g., Snowshoe).

Social Studies Standard 4: Geography

SS.S.08.04 / Students will:

  • interpret and choose maps, globes and other geographic tools to categorize and organize information about personal directions, people, places and environments (The World in Spatial Terms).
  • examine the physical and human characteristics of place and explain how the lives of people are rooted in places and regions (Places and Regions).
  • analyze the physical processes that shape the earthís surface and create, sustain and modify the cultural and natural environment (Physical Systems).
  • analyze and illustrate how the earth is shaped by the movement of people and their activities (Human Systems).
  • analyze the interaction of society with the environment (Environment and Society).
  • point out geographic perspective and the tools and assess techniques available for geographic study (Uses of Geography).
  • SS.PD.08.4 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • name and label the four major physical geographic regions of West Virginia and identify isolation, interaction and identify mental maps.
      • label physical features, counties and cities on a variety of maps and read literature to identify locations, cultural development and the impact of climate.
      • recognize exploration, settlement patterns and technological advances of West Virginia in relation to geographic features over time.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • describe the four major physical geographic regions of West Virginia and identify the impact of isolation, interaction and explain the mental maps that result.
      • identify and label physical features, counties and cities on a variety of maps and explain literature passages to identify locations, cultural development and the impact of climate.
      • examine exploration, settlement patterns and technological advances of West Virginia in relation to geographic features and cultural geography.
    • Mastery:
      • research the four major physical geographic regions in West Virginia contribute to the various configurations of physical and cultural processes that impact isolation, interaction and analyze the mental maps that result.
      • illustrate physical and cultural features, counties and cities on a variety of maps and interpret literature to identify locations, cultural development and the impact of climate.
      • analyze exploration and settlement patterns and illustrate the relationship between geographic features, cultural geography and technological change.
    • Above Mastery:
      • summarize the four major physical geographic regions in West Virginia contribute to the various configurations of physical and cultural processes that impact isolation, interaction and justify the mental maps that result.
      • use geospatial data to create a variety of maps with physical and cultural features, counties and cities, and choose and interpret literature to identify locations, cultural development and the impact of climate.
      • research past exploration, settlement patterns and technological advances and relate these to the changes in physical and cultural geographic features.
    • Distinguished:
      • create a new geographic regional configuration in West Virginia based on innovations and cultural changes in recent years and explain the various factors that have contributed to your configurations including the mental map that will result.
      • use geospatial data and digital tools to create a variety of maps with physical and cultural features, counties and cities, and choose and write a piece of literature to identify locations, cultural development and the impact of climate.
      • evaluate settlement patterns of West Virginia, anticipate future population trends, and draw conclusions regarding the future effects of technological advances.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.08.04.01: provide exact location and relative location to explain West Virginiaís position on a variety of maps and globes by using correct geographic vocabulary and graphic displays. (e.g., neighboring states, Tropic of Capricorn, time zones, Equator).
    • SS.O.08.04.02: communicate the four major physical geographic regions, major rivers, landforms, borders and points of interest in West Virginia.
    • SS.O.08.04.03: analyze and discuss the mental images (mental maps) of West Virginiaís geographic and cultural regions that are created through reading descriptive literature.
    • SS.O.08.04.04: point out the counties and major cities of West Virginia on a map and correlate the reasons for the development of the major cities within their respective counties.
    • SS.O.08.04.05: explain the reasons for the locations and types of transportation systems developed in West Virginia and recommend future systems.
    • SS.O.08.04.06: distinguish climate, landforms, resources and population density in West Virginiaís regions using special purpose maps. (e.g., topographical, climate, Geographic Information Systems) and evaluate the impact of climate, landforms and resources on peopleís lives and settlement patterns.
    • SS.O.08.04.07: illustrate how the cultural and economic isolation of different areas of the United States and West Virginia have been changed through technological advances (e.g., TV, radio, telephone, computers, highways).
    • SS.O.08.04.08: critique the geographic factors that led to development of agriculture, coal, glass, chemical, metallurgical and tourism industries in West Virginia.
    • SS.O.08.04.09: research various regional configurations found in West Virginia (e.g., geographic, tourist, health, educational, language patterns, cultural, occupational), and analyze the impact of these factors on the regional mental maps developed by West Virginia students and all other West Virginia citizens, and then present an example using one or more of these factors.
    • SS.O.08.04.10: conclude how West Virginiaís environment affects tourism.

Social Studies Standard 5: History

SS.S.08.05 / Students will:

  • organize, analyze and compare historical events, distinguish cause-effect relationships, theorize alternative actions and outcomes, and anticipate future application. (Chronology).
  • use the processes and resources of historical inquiry to develop appropriate questions, gather and examine evidence, compare, analyze and interpret historical data (Skills and Application).
  • examine, analyze and synthesize historical knowledge of major events, individuals, cultures and the humanities in West Virginia, the United States and the world (Culture and Humanities).
  • use historical knowledge to analyze local, state, national and global interdependence (Interpretation and Evaluation).
  • examine political institutions and theories that have developed and changed over time; and research and cite reasons for development and change (Political Institutions).
  • SS.PD.08.5 / Performance Descriptors

    • Novice:
      • label significant people, places, documents, literature, music, art and events in the correct period and context of West Virginia history.
      • name and recall different physical and cultural regions across the state.
      • name the economic development, government and the diversity of cultures and society within the state.
      • name and list important industry, labor, transportation and technology issues of West Virginia.
    • Partial Mastery:
      • associate significant people, places, documents, literature, music, art and events in the correct period and context of West Virginia history.
      • list physical regions across the state and show their cultural patterns.
      • discuss the economic development, government, and the diversity of cultures and society within the state.
      • identify and define important industry, labor, transportation and technology issues of West Virginia.
    • Mastery:
      • explain significant people, places, documents, literature, music, art and events in the correct period and context of West Virginia history.
      • compare and contrast physical regions across the state and explain cultural patterns and differences.
      • explain economic development, government , the diversity of cultures and society within the state.
      • evaluate and discuss important industry, labor, transportation and technology issues and predict challenges facing West Virginia today.
    • Above Mastery:
      • analyze the significance of the actions of people, places, documents, literature, music, art and events and their impact on West Virginia history.
      • illustrate the connections between the physical regions and cultural patterns across the state, and evaluate cultural conflicts that could occur.
      • illustrate the possible connections among the economic development, government and the diversity of cultures and society within the state.
      • argue the importance of industry, labor, transportation and technology issues, and discuss the ramifications of these challenges.
    • Distinguished:
      • present an historical summary of West Virginia by incorporating the significance of people, actions, places, documents, literature, music, art and events that contributed to its development.
      • summarize the connections between the physical regions and cultural patterns across the state, and anticipate cultural conflicts that could be resolved.
      • summarize and debate the connections among the economic development, government and the diversity of cultures and society within the state.
      • research the history of industry, labor, transportation and technology issues, and summarize the significance of the historical decisions on conditions today.
  • Objectives / Students will:

    • SS.O.08.05.01: cite reasons for exploration, transportation routes and discoveries by major explorers and explain the sequence of events and incentives for Virginiaís expansion west to the Ohio River.
    • SS.O.08.05.02: compare and contrast the motives, incentives and settlement patterns of the French and English explorers and settlers on the western frontier.
    • SS.O.08.05.03: point out characteristics of various Native American cultures in West Virginia from the pre-Columbian period to the arrival of Europeans.
    • SS.O.08.05.04: relate the types of transportation that facilitated the growth of West Virginia and western expansion.
    • SS.O.08.05.05: evaluate the sequence and analyze the impact of contemporary social, economic and technological developments on people and culture in West Virginia and the United States.
    • SS.O.08.05.06: analyze the evolution of the labor movement in West Virginia and the United States.
    • SS.O.08.05.07: research and construct the sequence of events and cite the reasons for and resulting consequences of conflicts and wars that led to the formation of West Virginia as a state. (e.g., French and Indian War, American Revolution, Civil War).
    • SS.O.08.05.08: interpret facts about West Virginia and other areas from various types of charts, graphs, maps, pictures, models, timelines and primary sources (e.g. letters, journals and publications) and summarize what you have learned.
    • SS.O.08.05.09: evaluate the cultural conflict between the Europeans and Native Americans as it relates to western Virginia.
    • SS.O.08.05.10: explain the effect of immigration on the culture of West Virginia from European settlement through the early twentieth century.
    • SS.O.08.05.11: research and critique the role of ethnic and racial minorities, men, women and children in West Virginia who have made significant contributions to our history in the public and/or private sectors; choose the person you believe made the most significant contribution and explain your choice. (e.g., statehood, abolition, education, industry, literature, government).
    • SS.O.08.05.12: critique the significance of historical experience and of geographical, social and economic factors that have helped to shape both West Virginian and American society.
    • SS.O.08.05.13: assess the moral, ethical and legal tensions that led to the creation of the new state of West Virginia and how those tensions were resolved.
    • SS.O.08.05.14: point out and locate places of historical importance in West Virginia that can be visited by tourists.
    • SS.O.08.05.15: compile lists of fairs and festivals in West Virginia that can be attributed to the influence of various cultural groups who have settled in the state, explain the heritage of the fair or festival and its significance to the preservation of West Virginia history.

Social Studies Standard 6: Reading

SS.S.08.06 / Students will:

  • use the dimensions of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, background knowledge/vocabulary, high frequency word/fluency, comprehension, and writing) in their acquisition of social studies knowledge, insuring a foundation of college readiness in this genre.
  • recognize main ideas and supporting details to locate basic facts (e.g. names, dates, events).
  • distinguish relationships among people, ideas, and events.
  • recognize cause-effect relationships in content passages.
  • outline sequences of events.
  • summarize events and ideas. Infer main idea or purpose of content.
  • draw generalizations and conclusions about people, ideas and events.
  • write and edit organized texts of various genres to insure that information is clearly understood.

(Refer to policy 2520.1 for specific grade level reading and writing objectives.)

 
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