History Education News - Volume Five

History Education News
History Content 3
Best Practices 6
Teaching Materials 8
Issues and Research 10
TAH Grants 12
Professional Development 14
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
National History education Clearinghouse 4400 university Drive, MsN 1e7 Fairfax, VA 22030
Toll Free: 866-539-8381 info@teachinghistory.org | teachinghistory.org
sam Wineburg, executive Producer and senior scholar sharon Leon, Co-Director Daisy Martin, Co-Director Kelly schrum, Co-Director
Teresa DeFlitch, Project Manager Lee Ann Ghajar, Project Manager sivan Zakai, Director of Research Ammon shepherd, Webmaster James McCartney, Lead Programmer John Buescher, Historian and Researcher Chris Preparato, Multimedia Developer Lara Marie Harmon, Research Associate Jack schneider, Research Assistant
eric shed, Research Assistant Mark smith, Research Assistant Robert Lucas, Research Assistant Alaina Harmon, Research Assistant
Cover image: W.R. Norris, 1885. Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates.
The National History Education Clearinghouse (NHeC) is designed to help K-12 teachers access resources and materials to improve the teaching and learning of u.s. history. NHeC is funded by the u.s. De- partment of education Office of Innovation and Improvement’s Teaching American History (TAH) program under contract number eD-07-CO- 0088. It builds on and disseminates the valuable lessons learned by more than 900 TAH projects designed to raise student achievement by improving teachers’ knowledge and understanding of traditional u.s.
Maps are a popular and exciting resource for teaching history. using maps, teachers and students can explore military campaigns, settle- ment patterns, westward movement, the diffusion of ideas, environmental changes, migrations, and much more. in learning how to read and interpret maps, students develop significant critical thinking skills. Furthermore, Geographic information systems (Gis) technology allows students to explore complex questions, such as how colo- nial farming practices affected society
history. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the u.s. Department of education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorse- ment by the u.s. Government.
© 2010 Center for History and New Media. Created by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason university and the stanford university History education Group, in partnership with the American Historical Association and the National History Center.
and the environment or how land- scapes affected military campaigns. in this issue of History Education News, we are featuring some of the maps available for K–12 american history teachers. Keep exploring and enjoy!
the National History Education Clearinghouse has plenty of valu- able resources to help you chal- lenge your students in all areas of american history. along with History Education News, the clearinghouse at teachinghistory.org is a free resource. Visit today and let us know what you think!
History Content
The Internet offers unprece- dented opportunities to bring maps into the history classroom. Many websites provide educators with direct access to map collections and provide guides to help you and your students learn how to read and understand maps. At teachinghistory.org you can search for online archives. In addition, many of these resources have special sections for teachers that include lesson plans, interactive activities, or teaching guides.
Website Reviews
DaviD RuMSey Map ColleCtion
This private collection, which was recently donated to stanford university, presents more than 20,000 rare historical maps with a focus on North and south America. In addition to two browsers and a “col- lections ticker” requiring Insight software (available for free download), a GIs brows- er shows detailed overlays of maps and geospatial data. Many of the u.s. maps are from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and are often notable for their craftsmanship. Materials include atlases, globes, books, maritime charts, pocket and wall maps, and children’s maps. users can zoom in to view details.
Overlay capabilities make this site valu- able for its ability to convey how locations have changed over time.
Mapping HiStoRy
This website features a collection of 38 modules covering united states history from pre-1500 through 2000. These units include a variety of materials — from text introductions and review questions to interactive graphs and maps. The website also offers eighteen modules on euro- pean, Latin American, and African history, ranging in time between ancient Greek civilization and the present. Interactive maps and graphs require a shockwave plug-in for access. useful as geographic aids for those studying u.s. explorations
Charles H. Hitchcock and William P. Blake, Geological Map US, u.s. Census Office, 1874. Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates.
Slave Crops in the American South: 1860, Westfälische Wilhelms-universität Münster and university of Oregon, Mapping History uRL: http://mappinghistory.uoregon. edu/america/static/map16.html
issue 05 | February 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
in North America, westward expansion, campaigns against Native Americans, and slavery, among other topics in u.s. and world history.
there are hundreds of online archives and exhibits that include maps. Visit the nHEc blog at teachinghistory.org to read a special post that lists more map resources!
History in Multimedia
Listen to the podcasts below and discover how historians use maps to learn about history in ways that other sources do not allow. Discover many other online audio and video lectures on history and history education from public historians, educa- tors, authors, and university professors through a searchable database, History in Multimedia, at teachinghistory.org.
tHe fRenCHMan’S Map
“A map was drawn and then forgot- ten...,” until researchers at Colonial
Williamsburg used the 1782 French- man’s Map to help recreate the village. In this podcast, architectural researcher ed Chappell describes the map, an overhead view of the town of Williamsburg, and how they used it in the restoration and reconstruction of the colonial village. The interview is accompanied by a slideshow of images. To listen to this podcast, select “All 2008 podcasts,” and scroll to the program from April 21.
unDeRStanDing tHe battle of
gettySbuRg uSing giS
virginiaexperiment.com/podcast/ speakerSeries041708.mp3
Dr. Anne Knowles of Middlebury College answers the question: “What could Lee see at Gettysburg?” Dr. Knowles builds two digital terrain models of the battlefield, one from 1996 data derived from aerial photographs and the other based on contour lines extracted from an 1874 map of the battlefield. using a technique called “viewshed analysis,” she investigates how lines of sight and real- time geographic information may have
influenced commanders’ decisions and terrain perceptions. The results suggest that historical maps and evidence from the physical landscape can shed new light on even the most familiar historical subjects.
Good Reads
Published in 2002, Past Time Past Place: GIS for History by anne Kelly Knowles explores how Gis technology can illumi- nate the study of history. check your local library for a copy.
Battle of Gettysburg Cyclorama, Paul Dominique Philip- poteaux, 1884, photographed by Desiree N. Williams, November 28, 2008, Flickr, creative commons http:// www.flickr.com/photos/buddhakiwi/3126536408/.
Perfect for Younger Students
national geogRapHiC XpeDitionS: MapS MaDe foR pRinting anD Copying nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions
This website offers hundreds of printer- friendly maps! select a map of the u.s. or one of your state. There are also world maps and maps of other countries. users can choose between detailed or basic ver- sions. The maps section also links users to related lesson plans, such as Explore Your State With Maps for the K-2 classroom. Mapmaking guides categorized by grade level are available.
History Content in Your Backyard
pHilaplaCe — JuSt launCHeD!
PhilaPlace is an interactive website that connects stories to places across time in Philadelphia’s neighborhoods, creat- ing an enduring record of local heritage. Developed by the Historical society
of Pennsylvania, City of Philadelphia Department of Records, the university of Pennsylvania school of Design, and other
institutions and community members, the site weaves stories shared by ordinary people of all backgrounds with historical records to present an interpretive picture that captures the rich history, culture, and architecture of our neighborhoods — past and present. Philaplace uses a multimedia format, including interactive maps (both contemporary and historic), texts, photo- graphs, and audio and video clips. It rep- resents a new model for connecting with audiences — employing the latest digital technologies to share archival collections in an engaging and meaningful way.
Left: The Nguyen family, photographed in saigon before fleeing Vietnam and settling in south Philadelphia in 1975. The Nguyens were the first southeast Asian family in the traditionally Jewish and Italian American neighborhood. Photograph courtesy of Thoai Nguyen for the Historical society of Pennsylvania (sP0002_0260_001). Right: View of the southwark neighborhood of Philadelphia, including the sparks shot Tower, 1939. From the Philadel- phia Record Photograph Morgue, Historical society of Pennsylvania (sP0011_0011_001).
Florida, National Geographic expeditions: Maps Made for Printing and Copying uRL: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html?Parent=us… &Rootmap=usfl&Mode=d.
issue 05 | February 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Best Practices
Teachinghistory.org helps you transform primary sources into thought-provoking activi- ties and lessons that promote historical thinking and student participation.
Examples of Teaching
uSing MapS aS pRiMaRy SouRCeS
chnm.gmu.edu/loudountah/source-analysis/ john-smith-map/
Watch a fourth-grade teacher teach a les- son about John smith’s map of Virginia that was published in 1612. Source Analysis, a feature created for the Loud- oun County, Virginia (Teaching American History) website, has three sections
focused on the map: scholar analysis, teacher analysis, and classroom practice. The latter two sections show and analyze a standards-based lesson that asks students to answer the question: What
is important to John smith? The teacher carefully plans activities so students look closely at the map and consider how this primary source helps them answer the central question. The site provides examples of two promising practices: 1) engaging young students in close, careful observation and reading of a primary source document; and 2) using students’ observations to guide analysis and con- nect the source to larger questions and topics in the curriculum.
Using Primary Sources
Making SenSe of MapS
Making Sense of Maps offers a place for students and teachers to begin work- ing with maps as historical evidence. Written by David stephens, professor of geography at Youngstown state univer- sity, this guide offers an overview of the
“european situation spoils map on Post Office depart- ment floor,” Harris & ewing, April 12, 1939, Library of Congress: LC-DIG-hec-26428.
“He’s Right Way Corrigan now,” 1942, Library of Congress: LC-usZ62-130901.
history of maps and how historians use them, a breakdown of the elements of a map, tips on what questions to ask when analyzing maps, an annotated bibliography, and a guide to finding and using maps online.
New Videos in Examples of Historical Thinking
teachinghistory.org/best-practices/ examples-of-historical-thinking
Watch historians demonstrate histori- cal thinking using fascinating objects
and documents from American his- tory. What do daily objects such as a Hitchcock chair, a family portrait, and a lithograph of the West tell us about nineteenth-century America? What does an 1833 record from the Cherokee Nation’s supreme Court tell us about racial identity, legal authority, and slavery? How does a 1957 market re- search report on the public perception of potato chips reflect the attitudes and aspirations of postwar Americans? With segments at most five minutes long, the videos are all classroom friendly!
“Helen Johns Kirtland leaning on a globe,” c. 1919, Library of Congress: LC-DIG-ppmsca-06667.
FRee Teaching Historical Thinking Poster
Reserve Yours Today
the nHEc is creating a poster about historical thinking. Perfect for display, the poster will help you emphasize historical think- ing in your classroom. send an email to info@teachinghistory. org with your name and address and we will make sure you are one of the first to get a copy!
Amerique, Illus. in: Atlas ecclésiastique, Louis Brion de la Tour, Paris: Desnos, 1766, Library of Congress: LC-usZ62-46089.
issue 05 | February 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Teaching Materials
explore teachinghistory.org for ideas on how to teach a particular topic or for innovative ways to improve your lesson plans. Teaching Materials contains examples encompassing a range of time periods, topics, and grade levels that are ready for immediate classroom use.
Lesson Plan Reviews
Classroom teachers have reviewed and critiqued these lesson plans according to the National History education Clearinghouse rubric
(available at teachinghistory.org/files/ rubricfinal.pdf).
tHe fiRSt CenSuS: aMeRiCa in 1790
During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, major political debates broke out over how to best represent each state’s population in Congress. In this lesson, students explore the politics behind the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise at the Constitutional Conven- tion of 1787. The lesson has a strong em- phasis on analytic thinking and historical
causation. students engage with online maps, analyze census data from 1790, and read secondary sources (select either Map Tab or Documents Tab) to make evidence-based claims about why various state representatives held the positions they did on the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise. Read the review at teachinghistory.org.
Primary source documents and statisti- cal tables about immigration in the
Left: “slovak woman and children,” Augustus F. sherman, c. 1906-1914, New York Public Library Digital Gallery, Digi- tal ID: 418048. Center: Augustus F. sherman, c. 1905, New York Public Library Digital Gallery, Digital ID: 1206545. Right: “Have your answers ready state military,” June 11 to 16, 1917, Library of Congress: LC-usZC4-8370.
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries anchor this lesson. Analytical questions about the documents and tables require students to draw conclu- sions from the data, as well as evaluate opinions regarding immigration as ex- pressed in the primary sources. These materials are supplemented by Digital History’s larger Immigration Learning Module that provides hyperlinks to additional primary sources including photographs, interactive maps, a time- line, and documents. (NOTe: To access these documents, paste the title of the document into the search field when you arrive at the Library of Congress Learning Page.) Read the review at teachinghistory.org.
Ask a Master Teacher
Are you facing a challenge in your class- room? Visit teachinghistory.org and send your question to a master teacher for suggestions and advice.
tall taleS: tHe WeSt aS legenD
“i am working to develop
an activity around myths or controversial information about people, places, and events of the american Western Frontier (about 1850–1900). this is a high school level course.”
a. One could spend an entire lifetime studying the mythic and histori-
cal American West, but with your unit coming up, maybe it’s best to get you right into some resources that you can implement in the classroom. First, check out Exploring the West, a project of the
Bill Lane Center (http://west.stanford.edu/) for the study of the North American West. They have three units available on their website, one of which addresses the role of cowboys in historical myths about the West. Another good resource is PBs’s New Perspectives on the West (http:// www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/). This website has a number of good lesson plans and resources, including Making Myths: The West in Public and Private Writings. If you have time, it might be worth brows- ing around on the New Perspectives website — it’s full of rich material.
Read more at teachinghistory.org!
“A cowboy,” Detroit Photographic Company, 1898-1905, Library of Congress: LC-DIG-ppmsca-17855.
issue 05 | February 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Issues and Research
stay up to date with current issues and research that affect history education.
Research Brief
teaCHing foR HiStoRiCal unDeRStanDing in inCluSive ClaSSRooMS Teaching historical thinking can be tricky, especially in mixed ability classrooms. Yet it is possible for all students, even those with learning disabilities, to learn how to think about complex issues like histori- cal evidence, bias, and corroboration of sources. Ralph Ferretti and Charles MacArthur of the university of Delaware and Cynthia Okolo of Michigan state
university have shown that the right in- structional techniques can help improve the learning of all children.
Teaching Tips
When working in heterogeneous class- rooms, group projects focused on histori- cal questions can help all students learn more about investigating and understand- ing the past.
 Carefully select small groups that bring together students with and without learning disabilities.
 Begin by framing history as a narrative, a story of what happened to a particular group of people living in the past.
 Provide the student groups with primary source documents that shed light on the people and time period you are investigating, and guide them to think about the narrative elements of history: Who are the people we are investigat- ing? What was it like to live in their communities during their time? What challenges did they face and how did they respond to those challenges?
 Provide students a variety of ways to contribute to the group investigation — including but not limited to writ- ing, speaking, and gathering written and pictorial evidence — to open more avenues for participation.
Read the full research brief at teachinghistory.org.
teaching american History Professional development Workshop, 2009.
Provide student groups with primary source documents that shed light on the people and time period
you are investigating, and guide them to think about the narrative elements of history: Who are the people we are investigating? What was it like to live in their communities during their time? What challenges did they face and how did they respond to those challenges?
Coming Soon!
AnnuAl RepoRt on the StAte of
u.S. hiStoRy educAtion
Created by the National History education Clearinghouse, this report examines the state of u.s. history education primarily at the state level. This first of a series of annual reports focuses on state stan- dards, assessments, and subject-matter requirements for initial teacher licensure. It also describes significant educational programs that cross state boundaries.
get ReaDy foR ouR neW look!
The National History education Clear- inghouse will get a new look in 2010! New videos, including What is Historical Thinking and introductory tours of the website for elementary, middle, and high school teachers will be available. You will also find exciting new content, including Beyond the Textbook, a feature designed to look at how textbooks cover specific topics, what historians have to say, and what perspectives we uncover when look- ing at related primary sources.
NHeC Blog and Rss Feed
the nHEc blog keeps you up to date on what’s happening in history education, featuring categories such as “Holidays and Heritage,” “Multimedia,” and “student activities.” Get blog updates delivered to you with an rss feed. to learn more about rss feeds, read RSS: Just the Basics at teachinghistory. org/professional-development/ research-tools/20697.
NHeC is on Twitter
Follow @teachinghistory on twitter and be the first to know about history events, new additions to the nHEc, and great classroom resources!
issue 05 | February 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
TAH Grants
explore resources related to Teaching American History (TAH) grants to learn from current and past projects and to plan for future grant applications.
Project Spotlight
ConStRuCting, ConSuMing, anD ConSeRving aMeRiCa csudigitalhumanities.org/exhibits/exhibits
The Cleveland-based TAH Grant, Con- structing, Consuming, and Conserving America (CCC), offers teachers hands-on experience in archives, museums, histori- cal societies — and on the web. During the first year of the program, teacher
historians researched the archival holdings of the Western Reserve Historical society, Cleveland state university’s special Col- lections, online archives, and the holdings of local museums and historical societies. They defined research topics to comple- ment their classroom teaching — placing local history into the context of American history to help their students see the im- portance of the big picture. You can view the results of their research online.
Read more at teachinghistory.org.
Lessons Learned
viDeo! integRating HiStoRy anD MapS
Terri Ruyter, principal of Ps 276 in New York City, and Michele Yokell, a teacher in Ps 116, discuss their experiences with the Becoming Historians TAH Grant proj- ect, in which they sought creative ways to help New York City students under- stand the natural landscape traversed by colonists and pioneers.
C & NW RR, “Working on a locomotive at the 40th street railroad shops,” Chicago, Ill., Jack Delano, December 1942, Library of Congress: LC-DIG-fsac-1a34678.
“We work with a teaching american History Grant called Becoming Histori- ans. it’s working with elementary school kids, and one of the units of study in the new york city curriculum for fifth grade is this idea of westward expansion, and we came up with this — we realized that we had a bit of a stumbling block because when you’re talking westward expansion, it’s a pretty traditional model and teachers are doing oregon trail.
and our kids who live in new york city have no conceptual knowledge of what a plain is or a mountain or a mountain pass. so while we were getting ready to do this work around westward expansion and what’s out there, we wanted to help the kids make pictures in their minds to really have good empathy and historical imagination of what’s going on.”
Watch the video at teachinghistory.org.
Mark Your Calendars!
2010 taH SyMpoSiuM at tHe oRganization of aMeRiCan HiStoRianS annual Meeting Wednesday, April 7, 2010
Hilton Washington, Washington, D.C. 7:30 a.m. to 12:00 noon
Join other members of the TAH commu- nity to discuss important issues affecting the program. This year, Bruce Van sledri- ght will give the keynote address entitled “What Constitutes success of the TAH Program and How Can We Know.” For more information, visit http://meetings.oah.org/index.php/sessions/90-10tah.
Classroom, 2009.
Teaching American History Grant, 2009.
issue 05 | February 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Professional Development
At teachinghistory.org you can search for events and profession- al organizations nationally and in your backyard. In addition, you can learn how to use digital tools effectively in your classroom.
SoCial StuDieS SoS:
ConneCting Content anD liteRaCy
Minnesota Historical Society March 11, 2010
social studies teachers know how vital literacy competence is for success in the social studies classroom, but often lack training in how to teach literacy skills. Come and learn strategies for incorporating fun and meaningful reading selections into your classroom. Writing in the content area will also be explored by social studies and
literacy experts at this workshop. Cost is $50. Visit http://shop.mnhs.org/moreinfo.cfm?product_id=2392 for more information.
gReat CHiCago StoRieS SeMinaR:
tHe gReat MigRation
Chicago History Museum May 1 and May 15, 2010
This seminar delves into the history of Chicago’s Great Migration through compelling historical-fiction short stories based on the museum’s collection. For teachers of grades 3–12, earn up to seven professional development units.
Cost is $35. Visit http://www.chicagohistory.org/education/educatorprograms for more information.
Grants and Fellowships
national enDoWMent foR tHe aRtS
leaRning anD leaDeRSHip gRantS
neafoundation.org/pages/educators/grant-programs/ grant-application/learning-and-leadership/
These grants fund individual participation in high-quality professional development experiences, such as summer institutes
“sounds of History” Professional Development Workshop, 2009.
Teaching American History Professional Development Workshop, 2009.
or action research. Applicants must be practicing u.s. public school K-12 teachers, public school education support
professionals, or faculty and staff at public higher education institutions. Award totals $2000. Applications are accepted at any time and are reviewed three times a year. The next review deadline is June 1, 2010.
Tools for Teachers
SoCial eXploReR
social explorer provides easy access to census demographics about the united states from 1940 to 2000. The free, public edition offers a collection of interactive demographic maps of census data that can be viewed, queried, and manipulated. students can visually analyze and understand the demography of the u.s., their region, and their neigh- borhood, creating their own queries and parameters. Tools include zoom-in capa- bility, selection of variables, the option to create a slideshow enabling comparative dataset mapping, and printing. The City university of New York (CuNY) devel- oped the project.
Tell Us what You Think
We are grateful to our users who have let us know what they think about teachinghistory.org and History Education News!
Please let us know what we can do to make the National History Edu- cation Clearinghouse more useful to you. take a moment and tell us what you think of the newsletter and the website at teachinghistory. org. use the feedback form on the site, email comments to info@ teachinghistory.org, or call us at 1-866-539-8381. We appreciate your time and thank you for all that you do for history education!
issue 05 | February 2010
Center for History and New Media George Mason university 4400 university Drive, MsN 1e7 Fairfax, VA 22030