History Education News - Volume Six

History Education News
History Content 4
Best Practices 6
Teaching Materials 8
Issues and Research 10
Digital Classroom 12
TAH Projects 14
Analyzing Images!
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
History Education News
Kelly schrum, Director Daisy Martin, Director John Buescher, Historian and Researcher Jacob Douglas, Research Associate Lara Harmon, Research Associate James McCartney, Lead Programmer Chris Preperato, Multimedia Developer emily Purdue, Outreach Assistant Chris Raymond, Web Designer Amanda Rosenberg, Research Assistant Jack schneider, Research Associate Ammon shepherd, Webmaster Mark smith, Research Associate
Teachinghistory.org is designed to help K-12 teachers access resources and materials to improve the teaching and learning of u.s. history. Teachinghistory.org is funded by the u.s. Department of education through the Office of Innovation and Improvement Teaching American History (TAH) program (eD-07-CO-0088). It builds on and disseminates the valuable lessons learned by more than 1,000 TAH projects designed to raise student achievement by improving teachers’ knowledge and understanding of traditional u.s. history. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or poli- cies of the u.s. Department of education nor does mention
of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the u.s. Government.
© 2010 Center for History and New Media
Created by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason university.
4400 university Drive, MsN 1e7 Fairfax, VA 22030
Toll Free: 866.539.8381 info@teachinghistory.org
Cover image: “Learning how to determine latitude by using a sextant is senta Osoling, student at Polytechnic High school, Los Angeles, Calif,” Alfred T. Palmer, 1942, Library of Congress: LC-DIG-fsac-1a35363.
“The Factory: some of the young knitters in London Ho- siery Mills. London, Tennessee,” Lewis Hine, c. 1910.
“Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven chil- dren. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California,” Dorothea Lang, 1936, Library of Congress: LC-DIG-fsa-8b29516.
“Photograph of Flag Raising on Iwo Jima,” Joe Rosenthal, NARA, ARC Identifier 520748.
“slaves,” n.d., New York Public Library
Analyzing Images!
When we think of labor reform, we pic- ture breaker boys or factory girls from Lewis Hine photographs. We imagine the Great depression as reflected in the face of Florence owens thompson, the “Migrant Mother” depicted by WPa photographer dorothea Lange. or we see World War ii as captured by the iconic image of soldiers raising the flag on iwo Jima.
in recent years, due to the widespread online availability of historic images, we also imagine the less well-known visual representations of the past that are equally valuable and revealing. images capture both dramatic and mundane moments in our nations’ history. they offer a rich source of evidence for historical research and history classrooms.
Learning how to carefully read and analyze images, however, can be challenging—especially for students new to historical thinking.
Teachinghistory.org has many re- sources that provide images for the classroom and guides for teaching students how to analyze and use these images in understanding the past.
issue 06 | september 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
History Content
Looking for visual sources to teach about the past? Click on website Reviews to find websites that offer historic images such as photographs, paintings, or maps. Many of these resources have special sections for teachers including lesson plans, interactive activities, or teaching guides.
Website Reviews
tourIng turn-of-the-Century
AmerICA: PhotogrAPhS from the
DetroIt PublIShIng ComPAny, 1880-1920
teachinghistory.org/history-content/featured- website-reviews/14741
This website provides a look at the Detroit Publishing Company (DPC) pho- tographs from the turn of the twentieth century. Nine sections include: DPC His- tory, Cityscapes, Everyday Life, Foreign Views, Getting Around, Nature, and Workplace. Everyday Life photos range from cowboys playing dice and children in Chinatown to an African American emancipation Day celebration in Virginia. Nature includes majestic images that fed the growing tourist industry. Work- place depicts harvest scenes, loggers in Michigan, smelters, oyster pickers in Louisiana, and cotton gin workers.
SeleCteD CIvIl WAr PhotogrAPhS
teachinghistory.org/history-content/featured-website- reviews/14613
More than 1,000 photographs available here depict Civil War military personnel, preparations for battle, and the aftermath of war. Images include seaborne expeditions, officers, enlisted soldiers, and places, such as Washington, D.C. Timeline of the Civil War places images in historical context. Does the Camera Ever Lie highlights the constructed nature of images. This website is useful for studying nineteenth-century American photography and Civil War history.
History in Multimedia
explore audio and video resources to discover how historians “read” images to learn about the past. Discover a host of multimedia materials on history and history education through a searchable database, History in Multimedia, at teachinghistory.org.
[Bealeton, Va. Drum corps, 93d New York Infantry], Timothy O’sullivan, 1863, Library of Congress: LC-DIG- cwpb-04015.
“emancipation Day, Richmond, Va.,” Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection, c. 1905, Library of Congress: LC-D401-18421
teachinghistory.org/history-content/history-in- multimedia/20527
Wes Cowan of PBs’s History Detectives learns about the role of aerial recon- naissance and aerial photography in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
PortrAIt of meDgAr everS
teachinghistory.org/history-content/history-in- multimedia/19127
smithsonian curators examine a 1963 photograph of civil rights activist Medgar evers (1925-1963), discussing what it says about racial tension, social activism, and the call for change.
Museums and Historic Sites
george eAStmAn houSe
DISCovery KItS onlIne!
teachinghistory.org/history-content/historical- places/9815
With Discovery Kits Online, eastman House makes its collections and exper- tise available for teachers, students, and recreational learners. Kits were developed with the help of educators with attention to K-12 curricular goals and assessment methodologies. each unit (kit) offers classroom-ready lesson plans and study materials that can be used online or of- fline. Topics include: Photographers of the American West, Photographs of the Great Depression, Beyond the Image, and Depicting Native Americans.
InternAtIonAl Center for Pho-
togrAPhy CurrICulum guIDe
teachinghistory.org/history-content/website- reviews/24160
this guide focuses on teaching with photography across the K-12 curriculum. it includes strategies for using photos in history and social studies classrooms that range from close examination of a photograph’s composition to asking students to become the photogra- phers. see especially the section on social studies and history (Part 3). topics include visual literacy, docu- mentary photographs, portraiture, and multicultural education.
[View in Zuni, Looking Northeast], John Hillers, ca 1875, George eastman House.
Roy Wilkins and Medgar evers, unidentified Artist, 1963, National Portrait Gallery, smithsonian Institution.
Download Now!
issue 06 | september 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Best Practices
Teachinghistory.org helps you use primary sources for thought-provoking activities and lessons that promote historical thinking and student participation.
Perfect for Younger Students!
vIDeo: thIrD grADerS AnAlyzIng
hIStorICAl SourCeS
teachinghistory.org/best-practices/examples- teaching/23724
Watch students in Kimberly Heckart’s third grade classroom learn about child labor during the Industrial Revolution. In carefully sequenced activities, students analyze photographs taken by Lewis Hine, consult
secondary sources to build background knowledge and answer questions, and gen- erate connections. Watch their excitement!
Using Primary Sources
SCholArS In ACtIon: AnAlyzIng A
nIneteenth-Century DAguerreotyPe
teachinghistory.org/best-practices/using-primary- sources/14571
Scholars in Action presents case studies that demonstrate how scholars interpret
different kinds of historical evidence. This daguerreotype of Niagara Falls, taken by Platt Babbitt in 1853, reflects an era when the expansion of railroads and
the rise of a middle-class enabled some Americans to enjoy leisure travel. The daguerreotype process, the earliest form of photography, involved a painstaking ma- nipulation of light, chemicals, and copper plates. Daguerreotypes became a popular medium for a growing middle class eager to document themselves and their sur- roundings. While daguerreotypes could not be mass produced, they often served as the basis for newspaper illustrations that reached large numbers of Americans.
Examples of Historical Thinking
DAIly objeCtS In nIneteenth-
Century AmerICA
teachinghistory.org/best-practices/examples-of- historical-thinking/23423
Historian David Jaffee analyzes three nineteenth-century objects: a Hitchcock chair, a family portrait, and a lithograph of
[Niagara Falls], Platt Babbitt, ca. 1854, Library of Congress: LC-usZC4-4611.
the West. He talks about how they were made, how they were used, and what they can tell us about the past.
Jaffee models several historical thinking skills, including:
• close reading, paying attention to sym- bols, objects, and other visual clues;
• attention to source information, such as the date of creation and the artist, to understand the portrayal of the West through the eyes of easterners; and
• examining the larger context of all three objects to connect them with economic, cultural, and social change.
Lithograph, “Westward the Course of empire Takes its Way,” J.M. Ives, 1868, Bancroft Library.
FRee Teaching Historical Thinking Poster
request your free Historical Thinking Poster today! one side is designed for elementary school students and the other side for secondary. display it in your class to help teach historical thinking skills.
Visit teachinghistory.org/historical-thinking-poster-request to request your copy today.
issue 06 | september 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Teaching Materials
explore teachinghistory.org for ideas about how to teach a particular topic or for innovative ways to improve lesson plans. Teaching Materials contains examples that cover a range of time periods, topics, and grade levels and that can be used immediately in your classroom.
Teaching English Language Learners
teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials/english- language-learners
students who struggle with english have an especially difficult task in history class- rooms. Not only are they challenged with
learning core historical knowledge and skills but they are also learning english. History lessons offer rich opportunities to teach both language and content. This feature highlights instructional strategies and key information to help history teach- ers better serve the english Language Learner (eLL) student population.
Content includes strategies for coaching eLL students in composing claims about cause and effect, responding to eLL student writing, and using primary sources with eLLs.
see, for example, Using Visuals to Build Interest and Understanding (teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials/ english-language-learners/24143) on teaching english Language Learners with historic photographs.
Lesson Plan Reviews
mIDnIght rIDe of PAul revere
teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials/lesson-plan- reviews/23941
This NeH edsitement lesson challenges students to use primary source evidence to assess Grant Wood’s famous 1931 painting, The Midnight Ride of Paul
“Midnight Ride of Paul Revere,” Grant Wood, 1931, Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
[Yard of tenement, New York, N.Y.], c. 1905, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection, Library of Congress: LC-D4-36489.
Tell Us what You Think
Please let us know what we can do to make teachinghistory.org more useful to you. subscribe to the newsletter, request materi- als or professional development (teachinghistory.org/outreach), email comments (info@ teachinghistory.org), or call toll-free (1.866.539.8381). thank you for all that you do
for history education!
Revere, and to determine the event’s his- torical significance. It provides a wealth of resources for analyzing art as historical evidence and for using art along with written documents to learn about the past. students start by noting their initial impressions of Wood’s painting and then read a series of primary accounts of the event from British and colonial perspec- tives. The lesson concludes with multiple assessment options including analyzing the poem “Paul Revere’s Ride” by Henry Wordsworth Longfellow, using evidence to distinguish between fact and fiction, and writing a short story.
Students who struggle with English have an especially difficult task in history classrooms. Not only are they chal- lenged with learning core historical knowl- edge and skills but they are also learning English. History lessons offer rich opportunities to teach both language and content.
Check out the Teachinghistory.org Facebook page!
Visit our Facebook page and stay current on the latest news in history education. Each Wednesday, explore a new link to interesting primary sources or teaching tools ready for your classroom. Each month, discov- er our most popular resources.
issue 06 | september 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Issues and Research
stay up-to-date with current issues and research that shape the field of history education.
Research Briefs
teAChIng for hIStorICAl
unDerStAnDIng In InCluSIve
teachinghistory.org/issues-and-research/research- briefs/22961
All students, even those with learn- ing disabilities, can learn how to think about complex issues such as histori- cal evidence, bias, and corroboration of sources. Ralph Ferretti and Charles MacArthur of the university of Delaware and Cynthia Okolo of Michigan state
university have shown that the right instructional techniques can help improve the learning of all children.
Read about their fifth-grade social studies unit on western expansion designed to teach content and historical thinking. students investigated the experiences
of three groups—miners, farmers, and Mormons—and answered the following question: should these groups have gone west? Then they created a multimedia report about their investigation.
Read more at teachinghistory.org
History Education in the U.S.
A rePort on the StAte of hIStory eDuCAtIon teachinghistory.org/issues-and-research/report
Reading through state standards, it be- comes apparent that there is enormous variation in how states organize, frame, detail, and use their requirements and recommendations for teaching and learning u.s. History. From this variety,
however, emerges a story of growing attention to history education over the past two decades.
This report examines u.s. history education at the state level with a focus on standards, assessments, and subject-matter requirements for initial teacher licensure. While only eleven states refer to “history” in the titles of their standards documents, twenty-five states mandate four or more years of in- struction in u.s. and state history. And forty-one states require a u.s. history course to graduate from high school, up from thirty states in 2003.
To learn more, download the full report as a PDF or request a print copy at info@teachinghistory.org.
A Report on the State of U.S. History Education
Prepared for the National History Education Clearinghouse
By Daisy Martin, Jack Schneider, Brad Fogo, Jane Kon With help from Rob Lucas and Luke Terra
hIStory eDuCAtIon InterACtIve mAP
Find information on state require- ments for u.s. history by exploring data through our interactive map. Click on individual states to learn whether history courses are required for high school graduation and whether or not there is a state assessment.
21St-Century SKIllS AnD the
leArnIng of hIStory
teachinghistory.org/issues-and-research/ roundtable/24058
Does the learning of history need to be updated in the 21st century? Read what educators and historians around
the country have to say and add your thoughts to the conversation.
“The danger with syncing history to the 21st century is that it means, or at least I take it to mean, ramping up our investment in ‘technologically enhanced learning,’ which is usually some kind of shorthand for asking students to do all their work from their computers by hop-scotching from one website to another.”
—Jill Lepore (historian)
Voice Your Opinion in the Teachinghistory.org Roundtables!
Hear what scholars, research- ers, and teachers have to say about topics affecting history education, such as what role history departments should play in preparing future teachers and integrating 21st-century skills into history education.
“...We still need to teach our students to think critically. They still need to know how to find relevant and reli- able sources and to use digital tools and resources efficiently.”
—Steven Goldberg (educator)
WhAt role ShoulD hIStory DePArt-
mentS PlAy In teACher PrePArAtIon?
teachinghistory.org/issues-and-research/ roundtable/23868
Join the conversation about the role of history departments in teacher prepara- tion. should history teacher education be placed in the hands of historians? Or should teachers be trained exclusively in colleges of education?
“The only conclusion I can make about the role of history departments in the preparation of teachers is that they are necessary but not sufficient components of the education of sec- ondary teachers.” —Gloria Ladson-Billings (education professor)
issue 06 | september 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
Digital Classroom
explore the new Digital Classroom section, featuring:
• Tech for Teachers—an annotated guide to digital tools;
• Beyond the Chalkboard— video of digital tools “in action” in the classroom; and
• Ask a Digital Historian— answers to your questions about digital tools and history education.
Tech for Teachers
SeArCh engIneS
teachinghistory.org/professional-development/tech-for- teachers/23822
Teaching students to search the Internet effectively is an exercise in critical thinking and project planning. But let’s face it—a Google search for “Civil War” yields more than 122 million results, far more than any student can reasonably navigate. It’s irresistible to explore the first dozen or so responses without look- ing further. explore here to learn new search techniques and discover tools that provide specialized approaches to web information retrieval.
Beyond the Chalkboard
InterACtIve WhIteboArD AnD A
zoom-In InquIry
teachinghistory.org/digital-classroom/beyond-the- chalkboard/24158
History teacher Joe Jelen, in silver spring, MD, introduces “zoom-in inqui- ry,” a technique for teaching with visual primary sources. using PowerPoint and his interactive whiteboard, Jelen guides students through the process of looking at small pieces of a political cartoon on the My Lai Massacre, slowly revealing the entire image.
This political cartoon by Paul Conrad, published in the Los Angeles Times in 1971, explores the u.s. reaction to the
Digital Classroom splash image, teachinghistory.org, 2010.
“The My Lai Ditch Claims Another Victim,” Paul Conrad, 1971, Los Angeles Times.
My Lai Massacre and the trial of Lt. Willam Calley. The lesson shown here models strategies for exploring political cartoons, public opinion, and photogra- phy as students explore the perspectives of individuals whose voices do not ap- pear in the textbook narrative.
uSIng SKyPe In the ClASSroom
teachinghistory.org/digital-classroom/beyond-the- chalkboard/24161
In this twenty-minute video, educa- tor silvia Tolisano (langwitches.org/ blog/about/) narrates a comprehensive overview of skype and its use and potential in the classroom. she includes a basic introduction to the hardware and software involved and advice on how to set up a call. she also discusses where to look for contacts, shows foot- age of classroom-to-classroom calls and classroom-to-expert (author, artist, his- torian) calls, and makes suggestions on planning, troubleshooting, and following up calls. she focuses on images and examples of skype use in elementary- level classrooms.
Ask a Digital Historian
hIStorIC ImAgeS Are everyWhere
teachinghistory.org/digital-classroom/ask-a-digital- historian/23885
is there a database of historic
pictures that you would recommend for use in a high school history classroom?
a. Historic images are online, everywhere. And with the speed
of cut-and-paste and right-click down- loads, it’s easy to grab a photo and run without validating the original source of an image, who posted it online, and whether the digitized representation corresponds to the archival version. Fragments, touchups, and images without citations are often misleading. Read the full answer online to learn about images and image research.
Teachinghistory.org flyer, 2010.
issue 06 | september 2010
History Education news | teachinghistory.org
TAH Projects
explore resources related to Teaching American History (TAH) grants to learn from current and past projects and to plan for future grant applications.
Project Spotlight
CAuSeS of ConflICt
Causes of Conflict (Vancouver, WA) includes strong evaluation techniques and continuous reflection on grant practice. In addition to sharing resources, the project website reflects an ongoing interest in what teachers need and want to know. A survey inquires about interest
in various time periods and developing specific skills, teaching challenges, and approaches to history.
Lessons Learned
moDelIng PlACe-bASeD teAChIng
sarah Jencks of Ford’s Theatre and Talia Mosconi of Tudor Place Historic House discuss multilayered programs for teaching educators about using historic
places as primary sources. A number of historical sites in Washington, D.C., have formed partnerships to provide educators with a wide-ranging orientation to the city’s history. Jencks and Mosconi warn against the dangers of racing through too many historical sites without context or time to process.
“[We] realized that we were both approaching the Civil War in very different ways, in terms of working with teachers, and that they were really complementary....We realized if we did it together we could create a much richer program where teachers can actually look at the Civil War from different viewpoints.”
loCAl hIStory AnD StuDent hIStorIAnS teachinghistory.org/tah-grants/lessons-learned/24078
experienced high-school teacher James Percoco talks through his experiences learning to teach with historic places. exploring your local community can
Callie Hawkins shares stories of President Lincoln’s Cottage with teachers in the President’s parlor.
James Percoco and students, Applied History Gettysburg Field Trip.
engage students with the history sur- rounding them. Walk your students (and yourself) through the popular memory of a historical place before visiting, and guide students in seeing not just the construct- ed, polished version of history, but its often less-comfortable reality.
“A historic house museum, a historic site, a cemetery—they are tangible real places from the past that you can touch, you can tap into, and you can use to both teach as well as to learn.... Being at a place gives the event a
sense of immediacy. But I think you have to be careful, because I think you have to make sure that you don’t romanticize these things. I think, you know, you go to Gettysburg today, you go to Antietam today, any of the Civil War battlefields, any battlefield and it’s not the same, okay. You are not look- ing at heaps of dead men and dead horses, you don’t have the smell, you don’t have the smoke.”
Watch more online!
2009 teAChIng AmerICAn
hIStory AnnuAl ProjeCt
DIreCtorS ConferenCe
teachinghistory.org/tah-grants/annual-project- directors-conference/23875
Watch video of keynote speakers from the 2009 TAH Annual Project Directors Conference in Washington, D.C., with a focus on public history, Latino history, and America and the world.
U.s. Department of education Announces New TAH Grantees
Last month, u.s. secretary of edu- cation Arne Duncan announced the award of $115.3 million to 124 school districts to improve the quality of teaching American his- tory in our nation’s schools. Grants were awarded to school districts in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and American samoa.
issue 06 | september 2010
Center for History and New Media George Mason university 4400 university Drive, MsN 1e7 Fairfax, VA 22030