Reading a Cartoon: Massive Resistance


Artist Fred Seibel created this editorial cartoon in 1954, immediately following the U.S. Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision. The Court ruled segregated public schools unconstitutional, and declared that schools must desegregate with “all deliberate speed.” Look closely at this cartoon. It appeared in the Times-Dispatch, a newspaper in Richmond, VA. We have removed the caption and labels from several objects. Match the object to the label or caption that best reflects the message of the cartoon.