- Walter Camp, American Football (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1891).
- Walter Camp, ed., Spalding's Official Foot Ball Guide for 1904 (New York: American Sports Publishing Company, 1904).
- Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Photograph of Jim Thorpe Standing in His Carlisle Indian School Football Uniform," 1909, National Research and Archives Administration Archival Research Catalog (accessed January 6, 2010).
- "Football: Some Recent Modifications Suggested in the College Game," St. Louis Globe Democrat, April 10, 1887, p. 22.
- David M. Nelson, The Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1994).
- "The New Game of Football," New York Times, September 30, 1906, p. SM5.
- Michael Oriard, Reading Football: How the Popular Press Created an American Spectacle (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).
- John Sayle Watterson, College Football: History, Spectacle, Controversy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).
Plays You Won't See in the Superbowl
Over 30 years, beginning in 1876, football evolved from a slight variation on rugby into (roughly) its present-day form. Along the way, spectators saw some plays that would baffle today's football fans. Choose the answer that best describes each play below.