About the Author

Jenice L. View is Assistant Professor of Initiatives in Educational Transformation Program at George Mason University. Her research focuses on the critical teaching and learning of history, critical pedagogy in teacher professional development, how the learning of history impacts youth voice and civic engagement, white teacher consciousness, and the use of the arts and arts integration.

Modern Civil Rights Movement

Sundown Town Signs


In the first half of the 20th century, signs throughout the U.S., particularly in the northern states, were evidence of the concerted effort to keep people of color out of local communities after sundown, even if they were permitted to work or do business in town during the day. These were known as "sundown towns" and the segregation was often enforced by violence.


From Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. James W. Loewen. 2006. Last accessed May 1, 2012.