About the Author

Jenice L. View is Assistant Professor of Initiatives in Educational Transformation Program at George Mason University. Her research focuses on the critical teaching and learning of history, critical pedagogy in teacher professional development, how the learning of history impacts youth voice and civic engagement, white teacher consciousness, and the use of the arts and arts integration.

Modern Civil Rights Movement

Photo of the Occupation of Alcatraz Island by the American Indian Movement (1969)


This is an example of the 20th-century resistance of American Indians to oppression that occurred at the same time as the modern Civil Rights Movement.


Johnson, Troy. The American Indian Occupation of Alcatraz Island 1969–1971. 1995. Accessed May 1, 2012. Jrgens, Iris. "AIM Takeover of Alcatraz." From 5 Black Cats. 2010. Accessed May 1, 2012.